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French Military Leaders

NapoleonAugereauBernadotteBerthierBertrandBessieresBruneDavoutGuouvion St.-CyrGrouchyJourdanKellermanLannesLefebvreMacDonaldMarmontMassenaMonceyMortierMuratNeyOudinotPerignonPoniatowskiSerurierSoultSuchetVandammeVictorPrince EugeneLeclercMoreauHocheDumouriez

Napoleon

Bonaparte, Napoleon (1769 - 1821)

Ranks and Titles:
Emperor, coronation December 1804, proclaimed May 1804; Consul for Life, August 1802; Consul, November 1799; Commander-in-Chief of the Army of Italy, March 1796; Commander of artillery in Army of Italy, February 1794; General of Brigade, December 1793; Commander of artillery at siege of Toulon, September 1793; Second lieutenant in Artillery, 1785;

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded French Armee du Norde in 'Hundred Days' campaign of 1815, commanded at battles of Ligny and Waterloo;
Commanded French Army in 1814 campaign in France, commanded at battles of Brienne, La Rothiere, Champaubert, Montmirail, Chateau-Thierry, Vauchamps, Craonne, Laon, Rheims, and Arcis-sur-Aube.
Commanded French Army in 1813 campaigns in Saxony, commanded at battles of Lutzen, Bautzen, Dresden, Leipzig and Hanau.
Commanded French Grande Armee in Russian campaign of 1812, commanded at battles of Vitebsk, Smolensk, Borodino, Krasnyi and Beresina.
Commanded French Army in Austrian campaign of 1809, commanded at battles of Abensburg, Landshut, Eckmuhl, Ratisbon, Aspern-Essling and Wagram.
Commanded French Army during part of Spanish campaign of 1808, commanded at battle of Somosierra.
Commanded French Grande Armee in Polish campaign of 1807, commanded at battles of Eylau, Heilsberg and Friedland.
Commanded French Army of the Main in Prussian campaign of 1806, commanded at battle of Jena.
Commanded French Grande Armee in Austrian campaign of 1805, commanded at battles of Ulm, Hollabrunn and Austerlitz.
Commanded (de facto) French Army of the Reserve in Italian campaign of 1800, commanded at battle of Marengo.
Commanded French forces in Eygpt 1798-1799, commanded at battles of Alexandria, the Pyramids, El Arish, Jaffa, Mount Tabor and Aboukir.
Commanded French Army of Italy in campaign of 1796-1797, commanded at battles of Montenotte , Millesimo , Dego , Ceva , Mondovi , Fombio , Lodi , Borghetto , Lonato, Castiglione, Bassano, First Caldiero, Arcola and Rivoli.

In Summary:
An outstanding soldier-politician Napoleon is acknowledged as one of the half dozen or less great captains of history. He was daring, opportunistic and sought outright smashing victory. He lent his name to his era.


Augereau

Augereau, Pierre Francois Charles (1757 - 1816)

Ranks and Titles:
Duc de Castiglione, 1808; Marshall of the Empire, 1804; General of Division, 1793;

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded Armee du Rhone in French campaign of 1814;
Commanded XVI Corps in 1813, commanded at battle of Naumburg, participated in battle of Leipzig;
Commanded VIII Corps occupying Prussia in 1812;
Commanded Armee de Catlogne, June 1809 - March 1810;
Commanded VIII Corps March-June 1809;
Commanded VII Corps in Grande Armee from 1803 and in Austrian campaign of 1805, Prussian campaign of 1807, and Polish campaign of 1807, participated in battles of Jena and Eylau.;
Commanded French Forces in Holland 1799;
Commanded Army of Germany September 1797 to January 1798.
Commanded Corps in Army of Italy 1795-1797, leading role in battles of Loano, Lodi , Castiglione, and Arcola.;
Commanded a wing of the Army of the Pyrenees between December 1793 and September 1795, distinguishing himself at battle of San Lorenso-de-la-Muga.

In Summary:
A rough man, and a venal one while he was still making his fortune, but a very professional soldier and a fighter. His role in Napoleon's first Italian campaign probably assures his place in history. At Eylau he was very roughly handled along with his corps and doesn't seem to have been ever quite the same afterwards.


Bernadotte

Bernadotte, Jean Baptiste, (1763 - 1844)

Ranks and Titles:
Crown Prince of Sweden (Charles John) 1810, Prince de Porte-Corvo 1806, Marshall of the Empire 1804, General de Division 1794, General de Brigade 1794, Colonel 1794, Major 1794, Lieutenant 1791, Regimental Sergeant Major 1790, Sergeant 1785, Corporal 1785

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded Allied Army of the North in 1813, participated in Battle of Leipzig, Commanded at battles of Dennewitz and Gross-Beeren.
Commanded 'French' IX Corps (composed of Saxons) in 1809, participated in Battle of Wagram.
Commanded I Corps of Grande Armee 1805 to 1807, participated in Battle of Austerlitz in 1805. Is infamous for having missed both the Battles of Jena and Auerstadt in 1806, but later that year won an action at Halle against odds.
Commanded 4th Division in Army of Italy during 1797.
Commanded a division in the Battle of Kreusnach in 1795
Commanded a brigade at the Battle of Fluerus in 1794, in a manner which led to his exceedingly rapid promotion that year.

In Summary:
Died the reigning King of Sweden. Having contributed significantly to Napoleon's defeats in 1813 he has ever since been considered a traitor by many Frenchmen. A very political animal he seems to have been considered suspect by Napoleon from the very beginning of their association in Italy during 1797. Assessments of his reported behaviour in 1806 and 1809 should keep the resulting bias in mind. In fact Bernadotte's personal bravery was incontestable, as well as showly conspicuous. As a general he seems to have been quite competant if cautious.


Bertrand

Bertrand, Henri-Gatien, (1773 - 1844)

Ranks and Titles:
Grand Marshall of the Palace 1813, Governer of Illyria 1811-1812, Comte 1808, General de Division 1807, Inspector General of Engineers 1804, General de Brigade 1800, Engineer Officer 1793

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Fought during "Hundred Days" 1815
Fought in France campaign spring 1814
Led IV Corps in Germany 1813, fighting at Battles of Gross-Beeren, Dennewitz, and Leipzig
Responsible for building the Danube bridges for both the battles of Aspern-Essling and Wagram in 1809
Served in campaigns of 1805, 1806 and 1807
Served in Eygpt and Syria
Served in Italian campaign 1797

In Summary:
Bertrand was staunchly loyal to Napoleon. He performed whatever tasks he was given with a solid competance. He does not seem to have shown any great spark, or displayed any vision beyond that.


Berthier

Berthier, Louis Alexandre, (1753 - 1815)

Ranks and Titles:
Peer of France 1814, Colonel General of the Swiss 1810, Prince of Wagram 1809, Vice-Constable of the Empire 1807, Sovereign Prince of Newchatel and Valangin 1806, Major-general, Chief of Staff of La Grande Armee 1805, Senator, Grand Officier of the Palace, Grand Master of the Hunt, Marshall of the Empire 1804, General de Division 1795, re-instituted General de Brigade 1795, Suspended from general rank volunteers as private 1792, Marechal de camp (equiv. Brigadier General) 1792, Colonel adjutant general 1791, Lieutenant Colonel 1789, Major 1788, Captain 1777, Lieutenant 1770

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
See numerous battles Napoleon was in between 1796 and 1814, as Berthier was his indispensable Chief of Staff throughout.
He was not present for the "Hundred Days" campaign of 1815 having fallen to his death earlier that year.
He was in nominal command of the Army of Reserve in 1800.
Commanded the Army of Italy after Napoleons departure in 1797 and carried out an invasion of the Papal States.

In Summary:
Berthier was a well trained staff officer with over 15 years experience in the Royal Army, including time in America, when the Revolution came. Unlike many Royal officers he stayed in France. He served as Chief of Staff for the Army of the North in 1792, before being suspended. In 1795 he was restored to his rank and became Chief of Staff for the Army of Italy where he and Napoleon began their long partnership after Napoleons appointment to command in 1796. Berthier's staff work was an important contributing factor in Napoleon's successes and when he was unavailable in 1815 he was sorely missed. He was much more than a mere clerk, both in importance and personality. It is hard to imagine a 'clerk' leading a column of infantry across the bridge at Lodi through a hail of Austrian fire in the manner that Berthier did.


Bessieres

Bessieres, Jean-Baptiste, (1768 - 1813)

Ranks and Titles:
Duke of Istria 1809, Marshall of the Empire 1804, General de Division 1802, General de Brigade 1800

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Killed the day before the Battle of Lutzen in 1813, while commanding the cavalry of the Army of the Main
Commanded the cavalry of the Imperial Guard in the Russian Campaign of 1812
Commanded Army of the North (in Spain) in 1811, participated in Battle of Fuentes de Onoro.
Distinguished himself in command of cavalry at Aspern-Essling and Wagram 1809
Commanded Reserve Cavalry at Eckmuhl 1809
Commanded the Corps of Observation of the Western Pyrenees in 1808, commanded at the Battle of Medina de Rio Seco, a major French victory.
Commanded Second Corps of the Reserve Cavalry in 1807 Polish campaign, participated in the Battle of Eylau
Commanded Imperial Guard in 1805 and 1806, participating in Battle of Austerlitz.
Commanded Guard Cavalry in Campaign of 1800, participating in Battle of Marengo.
Present with Napoleon in Eygptian Campaign during 1798-1799, fights at Battle of Aboukir
Given command of Napoleons newly formed bodyguards, the Guides of the Army of Italy, in 1796. This originally rather small unit would become part of the core around which the Imperial Guard was developed.

In Summary:
A good and loyal friend to Napoleon. He was generally well liked. At the time he became Marshall he had yet to hold any large command let alone an independent one. This didn't sit entirely well with some of the other Marshalls. Nevertheless he proved himself a brave and effective commander of cavalry on the battlefield and a competant general in independent command. Some reason to believe he may have been too pessimistic and cautious. Apparently he was not as aggressive in pursuit as he could have been at his great victory of Medina de Rio Seco. He may have helped lose the Battle of Fuentos de Onoro with his tardiness. His advice to Napoleon in 1812 is credited with helping to lose the Russian Campaign.


Brune

Brune, Guillaume-Marie-Anne (1763 - 1815)

Ranks and Titles:
Marshall of the Empire 1804, General de Division 1797, General de Brigade 1793

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
August 1800 succeeds Messena as commander in chief in Italy
Commanded French Forces in Holland in 1799, commanded at Battles of Alkmaar and Castricum.
Commanded Army of Switzerland in 1798, he invaded Switzerland and seized the Swiss Treasury
Served under Massena during the First Italian Campaign (1796-1797), fighting at the battles of Arcola and Rivoli.

In Summary:
An ardent Republican and military politician. A good part of Brunes career was spent heading military governments. He had a reputation for harshness. Brune was described by Suchet who was his subordinate in Italy in 1798 as a "most shameless plunderer". Napoleon apparently believed him unfit for high command. However, he was personally brave and his defence of Holland against an Anglo-Russian landing in 1799 was creditable. His promotion to Marshall of the Empire in 1804 while he was Ambassador to Turkey may have been political. The fact he was mostly unemployed thereafter was almost certainly so, republicanism being out of fashion with Napoleon.


Davout

Davout, Louis Nicholas (1770 - 1823)

Ranks and Titles:
Prince of Eckmuhl 1809, Duke of Auerstadt 1808, Marshall of the Empire 1804, General de Division 1800, General de Brigade 1793

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commander of garrison in Hamburg 1813-1814
Commands I Corps in defense of Dresden, March 1813
Commands I Corps in Russian Campaign of 1812, fighting at Borodino and Krasoe
Commands Army of Germany 1810-1812
Commands III Corps 1805-1809, participating in Battles of Wagram, Eckmuhl, Eylau, Auerstadt, and Austerlitz.
1798 - 1799 in Eygpt with Napoleon, campaigned in Upper Eygpt under his friend Desaix, he distinguished himself both there and in the later Battle of Aboukir.

In Summary:
Davout is on the short list for Napoleon's best general. At the end he was one of the few that could safely be entrusted with independent command. He was completely loyal to Napoleon and an excellent administrator which lead to his employment in non-military roles like Minister of War during the 'Hundred Days' campaign of 1815. His troops were always well disciplined, trained, and supplied. His crowning glory was the Battle of Auerstadt which his III Corps won against the better part of the Prussian Army while Napoleon was fighting the smaller part at Jena.


Gouvion St.-Cyr

Gouvion St.Cyr, Laurent (1764 - 1830)

Ranks and Titles:
Marshall of the Empire 1812, Count of the Empire 1808, General de Division 1794, General de Brigade 1794

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Governor of Dresden 1813, fought at Battle of Dresden
Commanded VI (Bavarian) Corps of La Grande Armee in Russian Campaign in 1812, commanded at Battles of First Polotsk and Second Polotsk.
Commanded Army of Catalonia 1808-1809, winning victories at Cordadeu, Molinos de Rey, and Valls. Failed in Seige of Gerona.
Commanded 'Corps of Observation of the Kingdom of Naples' 1803-1805, commanded at Battle of Castelfranco in 1805 winning a notable victory
Assumes Command of Corps in Army of the Rhine in December 1799, winning a victory at the Second Battle of Biberach in spring of 1800
Distinguished himself while commanding French Forces in Liguria against Austrians during 1799
Commanded right wing at Battle of Novi in October 1799
Distinguished himself at First Battle of Biberach in 1796

In Summary:
St.Cyr, later to reorganize the Bourbon Army, seems to have been a cold, but very good general. He repeatedly won victories in secondary theatres that are now all but forgotten. He also repeatedly quarreled with his superiors and peers.


Grouchy

Grouchy, Emmanuel, (1766 - 1847)

Ranks and Titles:
Marshall of the Empire 1815, General de Division 1794, Lieutenant-Colonel 1791, Captain 1784, Lieutenant 1781, Hereditary Marquis

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded at battle of Wavre 1815
Commanded right wing of Army of the North in 'Hundred Days' Campaign in 1815
As commander of cavalry fought at Battles of Brienne, Vauchamps, Troyes, and Croanne in 1814
At Borodino in 1812, commanded bataillon sacre in retreat from Moscow
Was at Battle of Wagram in 1809
Spain 1808
Again commanded cavalry for Battle of Friedland in 1807
Commanded Dragoons at Eylau 1807
Commanded 2nd Dragoon Division in pursuit after Battles of Jena and Auerstadt in 1806
At Capitulation of Ulm 1805
Commanded infantry division on Rhine (South German Front) during Battle of Hohenlinden in 1800
In 1797 fought at Novi and captured at Pasturana

In Summary:
An excellent heavy cavalry general who had served in the Royal Army and was in fact a member of the nobility. This last didn't help his career in Revolutionary France, but he gave good service despite it. Grouchy's reputation suffers from his having been blamed for Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo.


Jourdan

Jourdan, Jean-Baptiste (1762 - 1833)

Ranks and Titles:
Marshall of the Empire 1804, General de Division 1793, General de Brigade 1793, 'chef de bataillon' (Colonel) 1791, Captain 1789

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
While Chief of Staff to the Army of Spain defeated by Wellington at Vitoria in 1813
Commanded French forces at Battle of Talavera in 1809
Commanded French forces at Battle of Stockach in 1799
Commanded the Army of the Sambre and Moselle in Battle of Wurzburg in 1795
Commanded the Army of the Moselle in Battle of Fleurus in 1794
Commanded the Army of the North in Battle of Wattignies in 1793
Fought at Battle of Neerwinden in 1793
Fought at Battle of Jemappes in 1792

In Summary:
A former private in the Royal Army, an honest man, and a good general Jourdan survived holding high command in Revolutionary France. He became a Marshall of the Empire only to encounter disrespect and insubordination in Spain where he twice suffered embarrassing defeats at the hands of Wellington.


Kellerman

Kellerman, Francois-Christophe, (1735 - 1820)

Ranks and Titles:
Duke of Valmy 1808, Marshall of the Empire 1804, Lieutenant-General (equivalent later General de Division) 1792, 'marechal de camp' (equivalent later General de Brigade) 1788, Lieutenant-Colonel 1772, Captain 1761, Lieutenant 1756

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded French Army of the Center in the critical Battle of Valmy in 1792
Held a variety of Army commands from 1791 to 1795.

In Summary:
This is Kellerman 'senior'. Essentially he was a renowned Revolutionary General who was honoured in Napoleon's new Empire for political reasons.


Lannes

Lannes, Jean (1769 - 1809)

Ranks and Titles:
Duke of Montebello 1808, Marshall of the Empire 1804, General de Division 1800, General de Brigade 1797

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded II Corps of Grande Armee at Battle of Aspern-Essling May 1809, where killed
Commanded Provisional Corps at Battles of Abensburg, Landshut, Eckmuhl, and Ratisbon in April 1809
Commanded at seige of Saragossa January 1809
Commanded at Battle of Tudela 1808
Commanded Reserve Corps Battles of Heilsberg and Friedland, also the siege of Danzig 1807
Commanded V Corps of Grande Armee at Battle of Pultusk, December 1806
Commanded V Corps of Grande Armee at Battles of Saalfeld and Jena, October 1806
Commanded IV Corps of Grande Armee at Battle of Austerlitz, December 1805
Commanded IV Corps of Grande Armee at Battle of Hollabrun, November 1805
Commanded IV Corps of Grande Armee at Battle of Ulm, October 1805
Commanded Advance Guard of Army of the Reserve at Battles of Montebello and Marengo in 1800
Commanded a division at Battles of Acre (siege), Jaffa, and Aboukir in 1799
Commanded brigade at Battle of Alexandria in 1798
Fought at Battles of Arcola, Bassano, Fombio , Lodi , Volti and Dego , in 1796

In Summary:
Incredibly brave even by the standards of the time, wounded three times at Arcola. Lannes was also well liked and intelligent. His death meant the loss of one of Napoleons best battlefield generals and one of his best friends.


Lefebvre

Lefebvre, Francois-Joseph, (1755 - 1820)

Ranks and Titles:
Duke of Danzig 1807, Marshall of the Empire 1804, General de Division 1794, General de Brigade 1793, Captain 1792, Lieutenant 1789, Sergeant 1782

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Fought at Battles of Arcis-sur-Aube, Montereau, and Champaubert in 1814
Commanded Old Guard Infantry during Russian Campaign of 1812
Commanded VII(Bavarian) Corps of Grande Armee at Battles of Abensburg and Eckmuhl
Participated in Battle of Espinosa 1808
Commanded IV Corps in Spain at Battle of Durango 1808
Commands X Corps in siege of Danzig 1807
Fought at Battle of Altenkirchen in 1796
Fought at Battle of Fluerus in 1794

In Summary:
The epitome of the good old soldier Lefebvre was a solid leader of troops, who had mixed results while in independent command.


MacDonald

MacDonald, Jacques Etienne Joseph Alexandre (1774 - 1852)

Ranks and Titles:
Duke of Taranto 1809, Marshall of the Empire 1809, General de Division 1794, Captain 1792, Lieutenant 1785

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded XI Corps and small groups of other Corps in Northern France during 1814 campaign
Commanded XI Corps at Battle of Leipzig in October 1813
Commanded French Army of the Bober at Battle of Katzbach in August 1813
Commanded XI Corps at Battle of Bautzen in May 1813
Commanded XI Corps at Battle of Lutzen in May 1813
Commanded X Corps in Lithuania during Russian campaign of 1812
Commanded French Army of Catalonia in 1810
Commanded his 'wing' of Army of Italy at Battle of Wagram in 1809. It was the march of a gigantic square of his men that broke the Austrian center and won him his baton.
Commanded wing of the Army of Italy in spring of 1809
Fought at Battle of Jemappes in 1792

In Summary:
Not necessarily the bluff honest soldier he portrayed himself as, MacDonald was a good Corps commander who proved rather too inflexible in independent Army command.


Marmont

Marmont, August-Frederic-Louis Viesse (1774 - 1852)

Ranks and Titles:
Marshall of the Empire 1809, Duke of Ragusa 1808, Governor of Dalmatia 1806, General de Division 1800, General de Brigade 1798, 'chef de bataillon' 1796, Captain 1793, Lieutenant 1792

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded XI Corps at Battles of La Rothiere, Champaubert, Vauchamps, Laon, La Fere-Champenoise, and Romainville in 1814 compaign in France
Commanded VI Corps at Battles of Lutzen, Bautzen, Dresden and Leipzig in 1813
Commanded French Army of Portugal at Battle of Salamanca in 1812
Commanded XI Corps at Battle of Wagram in 1809.
Commanded II Corps of Grand Armee at Battle of Ulm in 1805
Commanded Artillery at Battle of Marengo in 1800
Fought at Battles of Alexandria and the Battle of the Pyramids in 1798
Fought at Battles of Mondovi , Lodi , Castiglione and Arcola in 1796
Participated in seige of Toulon in 1793

In Summary:
Personally brave and a friend of Napoleon's Marmont was a capable soldier and an effective adminstrator. During his term of office as governor of Dalmatia he both secured the region for France and made significant civil improvements. Despite his accomplishments he tends to be remembered for his defeat at Salamanca and his treacherous surrender of his Corps in 1814.


Massena

Massena, Andre (1758 - 1817)

Ranks and Titles:
Prince of Essling 1810, Duke of Rivoli 1808, Marshall of the Empire 1804, General de Division 1793, General de Brigade 1793

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded French Army of Portugal at Battle of Fuentes de Onoro in 1811
Commanded French Army of Portugal at Battle of Bussaco in 1810
Commanded IV Corps at Wagram in 1809
Commanded IV Corps at Aspern-Essling in 1809
Commanded V Corps of Grande Armee during Polish campaign in 1807
Commanded Army of Italy at Battle of Verona-Caldiero in 1805
Commanded Garrison of Genoa during seige 1800
Commanded Army of the Danube at Second Battle of Zurich September 1799
Commanded Army of the Danube at First Battle of Zurich June 1799
Commands French forces in Battle of Trevisio Pass March 1797
Fights at Battle of Rivoli January 1797
Major role in Battles of Lonato, Castiglione and Arcola in 1796
Commands French forces at Battles of Montenotte , Dego and Mondovi in 1796
Commands French forces at Battle of Loano in 1795
Takes part in recapture of Toulon in 1793

In Summary:
One of France's best Generals. He was major contributor to the successes of the Army of Italy under Napoleon in 1796 and 1797. Served well in independent command, especially during the defense of Switzerland in 1799. Was noted for having a weakness both for plunder and women. By 1810 when he faced Wellington he was tired and past his prime.


Moncey

Moncey, (Jeannet de Moncey) Bon-Adrien (1754 - 1842)

Ranks and Titles:
Duke of Conegliano 1808, Marshall of the Empire 1804, General de Division 1794, General de Brigade

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded III Corps of the Army of Spain in Battles of Lerrin and Tudela in 1808
Commanded Army of the Western Pyrenees in engagements at Lecumberry and Villanova in October 1794
Lead 1st Division at Battles of St.Jean Pied de Porte and Arquinzu in summer 1794.
Commanded demi-brigade at Hendaye in February 1794
Commanded demi-brigade at St.Jean de Luz in July 1793
Commanded 5th Light demi-brigade of Army of the Western Pyrenees at Aldudes in June 1793

In Summary:
Moncey was an honest and humane man, also a good soldier. He does not seem to have been a great general. He does seem to have been a fairly lucky and competant one, having done well during his command of the Army of the Western Pyrenees. He was not one of Napoleon's inner circle and seems to have been made a Marshall mainly for political reasons.


Mortier

Mortier, Adolphe-Edouard-Casimir-Joseph (1768 - 1835)

Ranks and Titles:
Duke of Treviso 1808, Marshall of the Empire 1804, General de Divison 1799, General de Brigade 1799, Colonel 1795, Major 1793, Captain 1791

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded Old Guard in French campaign of 1814, fought at Battles of Bar-sur-Aube, Montmirail, Croanne and Laon
Commanded Young Guard in German campaign of 1813, fought at Battles of Lutzen, Bautzen, Dresden and Leipzig.
Commanded Young Guard in Russian campaign of 1812, fought in Battles of Krasnoe and Beresina
In tactical command at Battle of the Gebora in 1810
While commanding V Corps wounded at Battle of Ocana in 1809
Commanded French left wing (reinforced VIII Corps) at Battle of Friedland June 1807
Commanded French forces at Battle of Anclam April 1807
Commanded French forces at Battle of Durrenstein 1805
Commanded 100th Demi-brigade during Second Battle of Zurich in 1799, was promoted to General de Division on battlefield for his performance.
Led a brigade at Battle of Stockach in 1799
Fought at Battles of Altenkirchen and Friedberg in 1796
Fought at Battle of Fleurus in 1794
Fought at Battle of Wattignies 1793
Fought at Battle of Jemappes 1792
Fought at Quievrain in 1792

In Summary:
A good soldier and able administrator. Mortier had little chance to prove himself in independent commands but seems to have done well in the ones he was given. He missed Waterloo through illness, and went on to serve the Bourbons well and loyally.


Murat

Murat, Joachim (1767 - 1815)

Ranks and Titles:
King of Naples 1808, Grand Duke of Cleves and Berg 1806, Prince of the Empire 1805, Marshall of the Empire 1804, General de Division 1799, General de Brigade 1796, Colonel 1795, Major 1793, Captain 1793, Lieutenant 1792

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded French-Italian forces at Battle of Tollentino in 1815
Commanded 7th Army in Italy during 1814
Again led Napoleon's cavalry in German campaign of fall 1813, fought at battles of Dresden and Leipzig
Commanded cavalry of Grande Armee during Russian Campaign in 1812, fought at Battles of Smolensk, Krasnoe, Borodino and Vinikovo
King of Naples July 1808
Commander-in-Chief of Army of Spain in 1808
Again led cavalry in Prussian and Polish campaigns of 1806 and 1807, fighting at Battles of Jena, Eylau and Heilsberg.
Lead cavalry in Austrian campaign of 1805 and fought at Battle of Austerlitz
Commander-in-chief of Napoleon's cavalry in campaign of 1800.
Fought at Battle of Aboukir in 1799
Leads first cavalry charge in Battle of Dego , during 1796
Made Colonel for his part in arranging Napoleon's 'Whiff of Grapeshot' during 1795

In Summary:
A superb leader of cavalry on the battlefield Murat was also a member of the imperial family and an important statesman. He is probably discounted in this last role because of his flamboyence and the final failure of his designs. He was not as a strong a military administrator as he was a leader and this seems to have cost the French cavalry severely in Russia.


Ney

Ney, Michel (1769 - 1815)

Ranks and Titles:
Prince of the Moskowa 1813, Duke of Elchingen 1808, Marshall of the Empire 1804, General de Division 1799, General de Brigade 1796, Captain 1794, Lieutenant 1792, Regimental Sergeant Major 1792

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded left wing of the Army of the North during the Waterloo Campaign 1815, commanded at Battle of Quartre Bras and fought at Battle of Waterloo
Participated in French Campaign of 1814, fought at Battles of Montmirail, Croanne and Laon
Commanded III Corps throughout 1813 campaign in Germany, during Battles of Lutzen, Bautzen, Dresden, and Leipzig. Was in command of left wing of several corps at Bautzen and commanded the Army of Berlin at the Battle of Dennewitz.
Commanded III Corps during Russian campaign of 1812, fought at Battles of Smolensk, Borodino and Krasnoe. Commanded rear-guard during retreat.
Commanded VI Corps of Army of Portugal during years 1810 and 1811, fought at Battle of Bussaco, conducted seiges of Cuidad Rodrigo and Almeida.
Commanded VI Corps of Grande Armee in campaigns of 1805, 1806, and 1807, fought at Battles of Eylau, Friedland, Jena and Elchingen
Fought at Battle of Hohenlinden in 1800
Fought at Mannheim in December 1799
Fought at Wurzberg in July 1799
Fought at Altenkirchen in 1796
Fought at Mainz in 1794

In Summary:
Possessing great tactical skill and inexhaustible energy Ney is remembered as "the bravest of the brave". As a battlefield commander he would often attempt and achieve the impossible showing a special penchant for rear guard actions in the retreats from Portugal and Moscow. His reputation in general, and particularly that of his intellect, have suffered from his performance during the 1815 Waterloo campaign, and the misfortunes he suffered in independent command during 1813 at the Battles of Bautzen and Dennewitz. This likely somewhat unfair historical assessment may be in part due to the writings of his former Chief of Staff, Jomini.


Oudinot

Oudinot, Nicholas-Charles (1767 - 1847)

Ranks and Titles:
Duke of Reggio 1810, Marshall of the Empire 1809, Count of the Empire 1808, General de Division 1799, General de Brigade 1794, Lieutenant Colonel 1791, Captain 1789

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded VII Corps during 1814 campaign in France, fought at battles of Brienne, Vauchamps, Valjouan, Montereau, La Rothiere and Arcis-sur-Aube
Commanded Army of Berlin at Battle of Gross-Beeren in August 1813
Commanded XII Corps April to May 1813, participated in Battle of Bautzen
Commanded II Corps on northern flank during Russian campaign of 1812, fought at Battles of Wilkomir, Jakowo, Oboiartsina, Polotsk and Beresina.
Commanded II Corps at Battle of Wagram in 1809
Fought at Battles of Pfaffenhofen, Landshut, Abensberg and Aspern-Essling in 1809
Participated in Battle of Friedland and Seige of Danzig in 1807
Fought at Battle of Hollabrunn in 1805
Among beseiged at Genoa in 1800
Fought at First and Second Battles of Zurich, and Battle of Frauenfeld in 1799
Fought and first wounded at Geisberg in 1793

In Summary:
The 'most wounded' of Napoleon's Marshalls, Oudinot seems to have been an outstanding divisional commander and trainer of men. He also seems to have been a fair Chief of Staff. In independent command his record seems weak.


Perignon

Perignon, Catherine Dominique (1754 - 1818)

Ranks and Titles:
Count of the Empire 1808, Honorary Marshall of the Empire 1804, General de Division 1793, General de Brigade 1793, Lieutenant Colonel 1789, Lieutenant 1780

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded left wing of Army of Italy at Battle of Novi in 1799
Commanded Army of the Eastern Pyrenees August 1794 to July 1795
Fought in multiple actions of the Army of the Eastern Pyrenees 1792 to 1794

In Summary:
Although he performed well during his stint as a soldier and commander in the Army of the Eastern Pyrenees, Perignon seems to have been more of a political and diplomatic figure than a military one. His appointment as a Marshall was certainly political and honorary.


Poniatowski

Poniatowski, Joseph-Anthony (1763 - 1813)

Ranks and Titles:
Marshall of the Empire 1813, Polish Major-General 1789, Colonel in Austrian Army 1788, Lieutenant Colonel in Austrian Army 1786, Hereditary Prince of Poland and Bohemia

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Fought and died (4 days after receiving his baton) at Battle of Leipzig in October 1813
Commanded VIII Corps in German campaign of 1813
Commanded V Corps of Grande Armee in Russian campaign of 1812, fought at Battles of Smolensk, Borodino and Spass Kouplia.
Led Polish Army against Austrians in 1809
Fought in Polish insurrection of 1794
Commanded Polish Army against Russians in 1792

In Summary:
An aristocratic politician and Polish patriot, the Prince was personally brave and made a good corps commander. He seems to have done good work in building up and training Polish armies. Napoleon's making him a Marshall was more of a political than a military move.


Serurier

Serurier, Jean-Mathieu-Philbert (1742 - 1819)

Ranks and Titles:
Count of the Empire 1808, Honorary Marshall of the Empire 1804, General de Division 1794, Lieutenant Colonel 1791, Major 1789, Captain 1779, Lieutenant 1762

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Fought and was captured in Italian campaign of 1799
Commanded division in Army of Italy 1796 to 1797, fought at Battles of Castiglione, Borghetto , and Mondovi . Wounded at seige of Warburg in 1760

In Summary:
One of the three senior division commanders along with Augereau and Massena who helped make Napoleon's career establishing Italian campaign of 1796-7 possible. Serurier was noted for being a reliable and honest soldier of the old school as might be expected of a man who already had 34 years of military service in 1789. His appointment to Marshall was a reward for past service.


Soult

Soult, Nicolas-Jean de Dieu (1769 - 1851)

Ranks and Titles:
Duke of Dalmatia 1808, Marshal of the Empire 1804, General de Division 1799, General de Brigade 1794, Chef de battalion 1793, First enlisted 1785

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Chief of Staff to the Army of the North during the Waterloo Campaign of 1815
Commanded French at Battle of Toulouse April 10th 1814, which was the final act of the hard fought Campaign of the Pyrenees (from July 1813) against Allied forces led by Wellington.
Commanded left wing of French main force at Battle of Bautzen in May of 1813
Commanded Army of Andalusia from June 1810 until January 1813, fighting the Battle of Albuera in May 1811
Major General (Chief of Staff) to King Joseph of Spain 1809
Commanded at Battle of Oporto in May 1809, and Battle of Ocana in November of 1809
Commands II Corps in French pursuit of British under Sir John Moore during their retreat to Corunna in 1808
Commanded IV Corps from 1805 to 1807, fighting in battles of Austerlitz (1805), Jena (1806), Eylau (1807), and Heilsberg(1807)
Served with Massena during seige of Genoa in 1800
and the Defense of Zurich in 1799
Fought at Battle of Stockach in March 1799
Fought at Battle of Fleurus in 1794

In Summary:
Soult was one of Napoleon's better generals being a good strategist and planner of battles. His front line leadership, when he exercised it, was also outstanding. He seems to have lacked determination when in independent command. He was not a particularly inspirational leader or adept at politics. He was notorious as a looter. He did poorly as Napoleon's Chief of Staff during the Waterloo campaign.


Suchet

Suchet, Louis-Gabriel (1772 - 1826)

Ranks and Titles:
Duke of Albufera da Valencia 1813, Colonel-General of the Imperial Guard 1813, Marshall of the Empire 1811, General de Division 1799, General de Brigade 1798, Lieutenant-Colonel 1793

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded VII Corps of Observation and military districts around Lyons April 1815
Commanded V Corps of Observation around Strasbourg March 1815
Commander in Chief of the Army of Catalonia and Aragon 1813
Commanded Army of Aragon in taking of Valancia 1812
Seige of Tarragona 1811
In June of 1810 took Lerida and Mequinenza, in July took Tortosa.
Took command III Corps in Spain (later renamed Army of Aragon) in April of 1809, defeated at Battle of Alcaniz in May, achieved victories against Spanish under Blake at Battles of Maria and Belchite in June. Also received governership of Aragon at this time.
In command of 1st division of V Corps at Battle of Pultusk in December 1806
Commanded 1st division of V Corps at Battle of Saalfeld and Battle of Jena in October 1806
Commanded 3rd division of V Corps at Battles of Ulm, Hullabrun, and Austerlitz during Austrian Campaign of 1805.
Commanded French Forces defending Southern France along the line of the Vars in May 1800
Was Chief-of-Staff of Army of Italy at Battle of Novi in August 1799.
Wounded at Neumarkt in April 1799
Served at battle of Rivoli in January 1797
In 1796 fought with 18th Line Regiment at Battles of Dego , Lodi , Borghetto , Castiglione, Peschiera and Bassano. Wounded at Ceria in September.
Given command of 4th battalion of the 18th Line Regiment, fighting at Battle of Loano in November 1795
Participated in Seige of Toulon in 1793

In Summary:
Talented as a tactician, organizer and administrator, Suchet did well in independent commands. He was one of Napoleon's best generals, the only one to enhance his reputation in Spain.


Vandamme

Vandamme, Dominique Joseph Rene (1770 - 1830)

Ranks and Titles:
Peer of France 1815, Comte d'Unsebourg 1808, General de Division 1799, General de Brigade 1793, Captain 1792, Volunteer in West Indies 1790

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Fought at battles of Ligny and Wavre in 1815
Led III Corps in Belgium 1815
Commanded I Corps at battle of Kulmn August 1813, where he was captured
Fought under Davout at Hamburg and Madgeburg spring 1813
Led II and VIII Corps under Jerome in Russia 1812
Led VII Corps at battle of Wagram 1809
Fought at battles of Abensburg, Landshut, and Eckmuhl in spring of 1809
Led the VIII Corps of Wurtemburgers in Austrian campaign of 1809
Fought at Madgeburg and other seiges 1806-1807
Led division at Austerlitz under Soult in IV Corps in 1805
Fought on the Rhine during the campaign of 1800
Led division in Jourdan's army at Stockach 1799
With Moreau's Army of the Rhine 1797
Fought at Courtrai May 1794
Served under Moreau 1793-1795
Led Advance Guard at Hondschotte 1793
Fought in Belgium and Holland in 1792
With volunteers in West Indies 1790

In Summary:
A bad man but a good soldier. Repeatedly dismissed for looting and depredations. Hated by the Germans. Acquited himself well in the thick of the action for the full duration of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. Seems to have been capable of independant command. The disaster he led his Corps into at Kulmn is at least partly his fault, but the major portion of the blame belongs at Napoleon's doorstep who being distracted failed to co-ordinate the pursuing Corps. However, Vandamme was captured and Napoleon wrote the after action reports. The relevant documentation appears to have mysteriously disappeared. Vandamme who respected Napoleon remained silent.


Victor

Victor, Claude-Victor (1764 - 1841)

Ranks and Titles:
Duke of Bellano 1808, Marshall of the Empire 1807, General de Division 1797, General de Brigade 1793, Colonel 1793

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Given a command in the Imperial Guard was wounded at Craonne in March 1814, his last battle
Sacked for poor performance at Battle of Montmirail in February 1814
Participated in French Campaign of 1814 fightting at Battles of Brienne and La Rothiere in January 1814
Commanded II Corps at Battles of Dresden and Leipzig during 1813 Fall Campaign in Germany
Commanded IX Corps in Russian Campaign of 1812, fought significant rear guard action on Beresina.
Defeated at Barossa in 1811
Commanding I Corps in Spain led French Forces at Battle of Medellin in March 1809, and fought at Battle of Talavera in July 1809
Distinguished himself commanding I Corps at Battle of Friedland in 1807
In 1806 as Chief-of-Staff to Lannes commanding V Corps he participated in Battles of Saalfeld, Jena, and Pultusk, being wounded at Jena.
Held Corps command in Army of Reserve during 1800 fighting at Battles of Montbello and Marengo.
Wounded at Trebbia in 1799
Led reserves at Battle of Rivoli in 1797
Led first 18th Line regiment then 57th Line regiment, in Napoleon's First Italian Campaign, fighting at Battles of Borghetto , Lonato, Dego and Roverdo in 1796
Participated in Seige of Toulon in 1793

In Summary:
Victor was a capable general, but not one of Napoleon's best. He was an excellent organizer and tactician.


Prince Eugene

Beauharnais, Eugene de (1781 - 1824)

Ranks and Titles:
Colonel-General of the Chasseurs of the Guard, Viceroy of Italy, Prince of the Empire 1805; General 1804; Colonel 1802; Napoleon's Aide-de-camp in Eygpt 1798-99, and Italy 1796.

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
1814 commanded French forces in Italy continuing to hold it against the Austrians
Played major role at Battle of Lutzen in early May 1813 and was then sent to organize defence of Italy
From January to April of 1813 commanded the remenants of the Grande Armee (renamed Army of the Elbe)defending Poland and Germany against pursuing Russians.
During Russian Campaign of 1812 led Italian contingent (IV Corps a.k.a Army of Italy) and commanded Northern Wing of advance. Fought at Battles of Borodino and Maloyaroslavets
Commanded Army of Italy in 1809, commanded French forces at Battles of Socile, Piave and Raab. Fought at Battle of Wagram.
Fought as squadorn leader in Chasseurs de Cheval of the Consular Guard at the Battle of Marengo in 1800.

In Summary:
Eugene was honest and loyal as man, capable as a general, and competant in independent command. As Napoleon's step-son he had little need to indulge in self-promotion and only recently is his military reputation starting to improve as historians re-examine the historical record. His personal and political reputations have always been good.


Leclerc

Leclerc, Victor Emmanuel (1772 - 1802)

Ranks and Titles:
General de Division 1799, General de Brigade 1797, Lieutenant 1791

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
1801 Appointed to command of expedition to Santo Domingo
1801 Commanded Corps assisting Spanish against Portugal
1800 Fought in battles of Hochstadt and Landshut
1796-7 Fought in first Italian Campaign, present at battles of Castiglione and Rivoli
1793 Distinguished himself in siege of Toulon becoming a favorite of Napoleon's
1791 Participated in fighting on the Lower Rhine

In Summary:
An outstanding officer Leclerc was also Napoleon's brother-in-law having married Pauline Bonaparte in 1797. He spent a fair amount of time in staff postings during the mid-1790's. Initially sucessful in his expedition to Santo Domingo pacifying the black rebellion in what is now Haiti, his position was undermined by political decisions made in France. He died of yellow fever in November 1802.


Moreau

Moreau, Jean Victor (1763 - 1813)

Ranks and Titles:
General de Division 1794, General de Brigade 1794, Lieutenant Colonel 1791, Captain 1789

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Military Advisor to Tsar Alexander in 1813 "German War of Liberation"
Commanded Army of the Rhine 1800, won battles of Second Stockach, Moskirch, Ulm, Hochstadt, and most famously - Hohenlinden.
Commanded Army of Italy in 1799, defeated by Suverov at battle of Cassano
Commanded Army of Rhine and Moselle in 1796, fought battles of Ettlingen (Malsch) and Friedberg
Commanded Army of the North in 1795
In 1794 fought in battles of Moscroen, Tourcoing and Nijmegan.

In Summary:
Moreau's military reputation rivaled Napoleon's. In particular his 1800 victory against the Austrians at Hohenlinden threatened to overshadow Napoleon's efforts in Italy. Perhaps this explains Napoleon's efforts to 'improve' on the history of the battle of Marango. Moreau spent the years 1804 to 1813 exiled to the United States. He died after being hit by a French cannonball at Dresden in 1813. He was with the Allies at the time serving as military advisor to Tsar Alexander. The consensus seems to be that his political talents did not match his military ones.


Hoche

Hoche, Louis Lazare (1768 - 1797)

Ranks and Titles:
General de Division 1793, General de Brigade 1793, Captain 1792, Sergeant in National Guard 1789, Enlisted Royal Guards 1784

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded Army of Sambre and Meuse 1797, fought battles of Allenkirchen and Neuwied
Commanded 1796 Expedition to Bantry Bay in support of Irish Rebellion
In July 1795 defeated emigre landing at Quiberon Bay
Commanded Army of Brest 1794-1795 in suppressing Vendee rebellion
Commanded Army of Moselle in 1793 battles of Kaiserlautern, Froschwiller and Geisberg

In Summary:
One of the most outstanding French Revolutionary Generals. If Hoche had not died of chest disease in 1797 he would have been a serious potential rival to Napoleon.


Dumouriez

Dumouriez, Charles Francois (1739 - 1823)

Ranks and Titles:
Foreign Minister Girondist government of 1792, Elected National Convention, Joined National Guard 1789, Governor naval base at Cherbourg, Major-General 1788, Joined French Royal cavalry 1758

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded French at battle of Neerwinden 1793
Commanded French at battle of Jemappes 1792
Led invasion of Austrian Netherlands (Belgium) 1792
Commanded detachment from Army of the North at Valmy 1792

In Summary:
Dumouriez was an outstanding French Revolutionary General. He led a large detachment from his Army of the North to reinforce Kellerman's Army of the Center at Valmy and many sources consider him the French co-commander at that battle and partly or largely responsible for the French victory there. He successfully followed up Valmy with an invasion of the Austrian Netherlands defeating the Austrians at Jemappes. Fearing for his life after his defeat at Neerwinden the year afterwards he defected to the Allies.


Austrian Military Leaders

Archduke CharlesBeaulieuChastlerF. ColleredoH. ColleredoColliA. GiulayI. GiulaySchwartzenburgMackMerveldtArchduke JohnArchduke LouisHohenzollernHillerBellegardeRosenburgKienmaierKlenauKollowratKrayA. LichtensteinJ. LichtensteinM. LichtensteinReussWeyrotherWurmserSaxe-Coburg

Archduke Charles

Charles (Karl Ludwig), Archduke of Austia (1771 - 1847)

Ranks and Titles:
Commander-in-Chief Austrian Army 1806 Commanded in Italy 1806, War Minister 1801, Field-Marshal 1796, Corps Comand 1793, Governor General of Austrian Netherlands 1793, Lieutnant Field-Marshal (Feldmarschalleutnant) 1793, Brigade Command (Generalmajor) 1792

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded Austrian Army 1809 at battles of Abensburg, Eckmuhl, Aspern-Essling, and Wagram
Commanded Austrian Army in Italy 1805 in battle of Caldiero
Commanded Austrian Army of the Rhine 1799-1800 during battles at Biberach, Osterach, Stockach, and Zurich
Commanded Austrian Army in Italy 1797
Commanded Austrian Army of the Rhine 1796-1797 in battles of Rastadt, Amberg , and Wurzberg
Governor of Netherlands 1793 commanding in battles at Maastricht, Neerwinden , Wattignies , and Fluerus
Commanded Brigade 1792 seeing his first action at Jemappes

In Summary:
One of the few generals able to stand up to Napoleon.


Beaulieu

Johann Peter Beaulieu, Baron (1725 - 1819)

Ranks and Titles:
Commander Army of Northern Italy 1796,

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded Austrian Army in Italy during spring and early summer 1796

In Summary:
Had the misfortune to be the victim of Napoleon's first campaign. Made mistakes that eased Napoleon's difficulties but likely never had a chance.


Chasteler

Chasteler de Courcelles, Johann, Marquis (1763 - 1825)

Ranks and Titles:
Feldzeugmeister (eq. Lieutenant General) 1813, Feldmarschalleutnant (eq. Major General) 1801, Commander Cross of Maria Theresa Order 1799, Generalmajor (eq. Brigadier General) 1797, Oberst (eq. Col) 1795, Oberstleutant (eq. Lt. Col)1791, Maria Theresa Order 1790, Major 1789, Unterleutnant 1780, Joined Infantry regiment in Austrian Army as Cadet at age of 13 in 1776.

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Participated as column commander at Dresden and Kulmn in 1813
Independant command in Tyrol in 1809, defeated at Worgl
Commanded VIII Corps in Italy in 1809
Commanded Archduke John's right wing in Tyrol in 1805
Chief-of-Staff to Suvarov in 1799
Relieved seige of Mainz in 1795
Participated in seiges of Landrecy and Luttich 1793
Leg smashed at seige of Chotym 1790
Fought at battle of Focsani 1789
Fought in Turkish War 1788-1791
Attended engineering school in Netherlands

In Summary:
A highly educated engineering specialist who made his initial mark in seigework. His performance in the field proved respectable.


F. Colloredo

Colloredo, Franz, Count von (1731 - 1807)

Ranks and Titles:

Selected Campaigns and Battles:

In Summary:
Conservative opposed to all reform including those proposed by Archduke Charles. Retired after Austerlitz.


H. Colloredo

Colloredo-Mansfeld, Graf von, Hieronymous (1775 - 1822)

Ranks and Titles:
Feldzeugmeister (eq. Lieutenant General) 1813, Maria Theresa Order 1805, Generalmajor (eq. Brigadier General) 1805, Oberleutnant 1792.

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Wounded in Battle of Troyes in 1814
Led Allied left at Leipzig in 1813
Major role at Battle of Kulmn in 1813
Several rearguard actions in Italy 1809
Battle of Caldiero in Italy 1805
Directed Wurmsers Advance Guard mainly in Switzerland during 1796
Infantry leader in Revolutionary wars

In Summary:
Noted for his bravery seems to have been effective also. Major contributor to defeat of French under Marshall Vandammne at Kulmn in 1813.


Colli

M A Colli, (1725 - 1819)

Ranks and Titles:
Commander Piedmontese (Sandinian) Army 1795-1796,

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded Piedmontese (Sandinian) Army 1795-1796

In Summary:


A. Giulay

Giulay von Maros-Nemeth und Nadska, Albert (1766 - 1835)

Ranks and Titles:
Feldmarschalleutnant (eq. Major General) 1808, Generalmajor (eq. Brigadier General) 1800, Oberst (eq. Col) 1798, Oberstleutant (eq. Lt. Col) 1797, Major 1793, Maria Theresa Order 1789, RittMeister 1787, Oberleutnant 1787, Joins Austrian Army as Unterleutnant 1784.

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded VIII Corps under Archduke John in 1809
Served in Northern Italy during War of Second Coalition 1799-1801
Fought at Neerwinden 1793
Served in Revolutionary Wars
Participated in assault on Belgrade 1789
Served in Turkish War 1788-1791

In Summary:
A brave solidier who in his first high command in the field during 1809 had the misfortune of presiding over a rout after some initial success.


I. Giulay

Giulay von Maros-Nemeth und Nadska, Ignaz, Graf (1763 - 1831)

Ranks and Titles:
Grand Cross of the Leopold Order 1814, Feldzeugmeister (eq. Lieutenant General) 1813, Viceroy of Croatia 1805(?), Commander Cross of MTO 1800, Feldmarschalleutnant (eq. Major General) 1800, Generalmajor (eq. Brigadier General) 1797, Oberst (eq. Col) 1795, Maria Theresa Order 1794, Oberstleutnant (eq. Lt. Col) 1790, Major 1788, Joined Austrian Army as cadet in 1781.

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded III Corps at La Rothiere, Brienne, Arcis-sur-Aube , La Fere-Champenoise, and Paris 1814
Fought at Leipzig 1813
Commanded left wing at Dresden 1813
Commanded IX Corps in Italy 1809
Division commander under Mack in 1805
Fought at Hohenlinden in 1800
In retreat from Mosskirch in 1800
Led brigade in battles of Ostrach and Stockach in 1799
Participated seige of Kehl
Led IR 31 at Emmendingen 1796
Distinguished himself in assaults on Weissenburg lines 1793
Set up Gyulai Croat Freikorps 1790
Commanded regiment in Turkish War

In Summary:
A solid corps commander.


Schwartzenburg

Schwartzenburg, Prince Karl Philipp (1771 - 1820)

Ranks and Titles:
Ambassador to France 1809, Ambassador to Russia 1806-1809 Generalmajor (eq. Brigadier) 1796, Major 1792, Commissioned into Austrian Army 1788

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded Austrian Army in France Spring 1814
Led Austrian Army of Bohemia at battle of Arcis-sur-Aube Spring 1814
Commanded Allies at battles of Dresden and Leipzig last half 1813
Commanded "Grand Army of Bohemia" and was senior commander of Allies in 1813
Commanded Austrian Reserve Corps in Russia with French in 1812
Commanded division under Mack at Ulm 1805
Distinguished himself at Hohenlinden in 1800
Commanded division in 1800
Served at Amberg and Wurzberg in 1796
Served in battle of Landrecies in 1794
Participated in 1793-4 Netherlands campaign, award for charge at Cateau-Cambresis

In Summary:
Napoleon thought he was competant. Slow although this may have been political.


Mack

Mack, Karl Leiberich (1752 - 1828)

Ranks and Titles:
Commander of Austrian forces at start of 1805 campaign, Comander in Chief Neapolitan Army (detached duty) 1797, Chief of Staff of Austrian Army in First Coalition 1794, Major General 1793, Colonel (Oberst) at start of Revolutionary Wars, Enobled for bravery at seige of Belgrade 1789, Born a commoner entered service in Austrian Army 1770

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded Austrian Forces during battle of Eclchingen and surrender of Ulm 1805
As commander of Neapolitan army captured Rome,1798, but defeated and captured himself
Austrian Chief of Staff for War of First Coalition
At seige of Belgrade 1789
Fought against Turks in 1780s

In Summary:
Nelson who knew him from Naples didn't approve of the man and he certainly was most unfortunate when commanding in the field.


Merveldt

von Merveldt, Maximilian, Graf (1770 - 1815)

Ranks and Titles:
General of Cavalry (eq. Lieutenant General) 1812(?), Ambassador to St.Petersburg, Feldmarschalleutnant (eq. Major General) 1799, Generalmajor (eq. Brigadier General) 1796, Oberst (eq. Col) 1794, Maria Theresa Order 1793, Oberstleutnant (eq. Lt. Col) 1793, Major 1790, Oberleutnant 1787, Joined Austrian Army as boy cadet 1783.

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded II Corps in 1813, wounded and captured at Leipzig
In Galicia for 1809 campaign
Corps command in Germany 1805
Fought at Ukerath 1796
Led Karaczay Chevauleger regiment at Wetzlar 1796
Led Allied right wing at Landrecy 1794
Present at Famars and seige of Valenciennes
Participated Flanders Campaign 1793-94
Fought at Neerwinden 1793
Participated in suppression of rebellion in Belgium 1791
Served in Turkish War 1787-1791

In Summary:
A good leader and field commander. Merveldt seems to have had superior diplomatic skills.


Archduke John

Archduke John (1782 - 1859)

Ranks and Titles:
General of Cavalry 1805, Grand Cross of the Maria Theresa Order 1809, Commander Cross of the Maria Theresa Order 1806

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Directed seige of Huningen 1813
Commanded Austrian army in Italy 1809, fought battles of Sacile, the Pliave, and Raab
Led defence of Tyrolean passes 1805
Commanded Austrian army in Germany, led it at Hohenlinden 1800

In Summary:
Perhaps not as incompetant as you'd expect given that he was dropped into command on account of birth and without much actual military experience. Unfortunate that he didn't manage to appear on the field at Wagram as ordered, as were his earlier defeats at Hohenlinden in 1800, and in Italy in 1809.


Archduke Louis

Archduke Louis (Erzherzog Ludwig), Joseph Anton (1784 - 1864)

Ranks and Titles:
Feldmarschalleutnant (eq. Major General)

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded V Corps in invasion of Bavaria 1809, took part in battles of Abensburg and Second Landshut

In Summary:
Archduke Charles younger brother, commanded V Corps in Bavaria briefly at beginning of 1809 invasion of Bavaria. Didn't distinguish himself.


Hohenzollern

Hohenzollern-Hechingen, Franz Xavier Prince zu (1757 - 1844)

Ranks and Titles:
General of Cavalry (eq. Lieutenant General) 1809, Commander Cross MTO 1809, Feldmarschalleutnant (eq. Major General) 1800, Maria Theresa Order 1797, Generalmajor (eq. Brigadier General) 1796, Oberst (eq. Col) 1793, Oberstleutant (eq. Lt. Col) 1789, Major 1788, Joined Austrian Army as Unterleutnant from Dutch service 1776.

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded II Corps blockading StrassBourg 1815
Commanded Reserve Corps in Galacia in 1812
Commanded II Corps at Aspern-Essling and Wagram 1809
Commanded III Corps at Teugn-Hausen 1809
With his division broke out from Ulm in 1805
Fought at Pozzolo in 1800
His division stormed Bocchetta Pass and besieged Genoa in 1800
Commanded Austrian force against MacDonald at Modena 1799
Commanded division at Magnano in 1799, led seige of Milan,
Served in Italy 1796, fighting at First Caldiero
Led regiment in Belgium in 1793, fighting at Neerwinden , Tournai, and Wattignies
Served in Turkish War (1788-91)
Served in the War of Bavarian Succession (1778-9)

In Summary:
An aggressive and competant officer who was effective in independant commands. Retired a Field Marshall.


Hiller

Friherr (Baron) von Hiller, Johann (1748 - 1819)

Ranks and Titles:
Feldzeugmeister (eq. Lieutenant General) and Commander Cross of MTO 1809, Feldmarschalleutnant (eq. Major General) 1800, Generalmajor (eq. Brigadier General) 1794, Oberst (eq. Col) 1789, Enobled as Freiherr 1789, Maria Theresa Order 1788, Hauptmann (eq. Captain) 1774, Unterleutnant by 1768, Joined Austrian Army as cadet 1763.

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Army commander in Italy 1813
Commanded VI Corps in 1809, fighting at Neumarkt, Ebelsberg and Aspern-Essling
Led defense of South Tyrol in 1805
Wounded leading division at First Zurich 1799
Led brigade in Germany 1796
Distinguished himself in Turkish War, esp. capture of Berbir
Saw service in Bavarian Succession War 1778-1779

In Summary:
A competant officer, originally a commoner, well liked by his men but not his fellow officers. Didn't get along with Archduke Charles. Acquited himself well in retreat from Bavaria early in 1809.


Bellegarde

von Bellegarde, Heinrich, Graf (1756 - 1845)

Ranks and Titles:
President of Hofkriegsrat 1810, Feldmarschall 1809, Commander Cross MTO 1805, General of Cavalry (eq. Lieutenant General) 1800, Feldmarschalleutnant (eq. Major General) 1796, Maria Theresa Order 1794, Generalmajor (eq. Brigadier General) 1792, Oberst (eq. Col) 1785, Rittmeister in Dragoons , As Leutnant transferred from Saxon into Austrian Army in 1772(?).

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Replaced Hiller as commander Austria's Italian Army Nov 1813
Commanded I Corps in 1809, fighting at Aspern-Essling and Wagram
Commanded center at Second Caldiero in 1805
Commanding General in Italy after Melas in 1800
Fought at Novi 1799
Commanded Austrias Tyrolean Army, winning battle at Casina Grossa in Italy 1799
Military advisor to Archduke Charles 1796
Led Archduke Charles advance guard at Marque and Tournai 1794
Fought at seige of Le Quesnoi, at Avesnes, and at Wattignies 1793
Fought in Turkish War 1788-1791
Served with dragoons in Bavarian Succession War 1778-1779

In Summary:
A capable commander.


Rosenburg

Furst von Rosenburg-Orsini, Franz (1777 - 1811)

Ranks and Titles:
Feldzeugmeister (eq. Lieutenant General) 1813, Feldmarschalleutnant (eq. Major General) 1801, Commanders Cross MTO 1801, Generalmajor (eq. Brigadier General) 1797, Oberst (eq. Col) 1794, Oberstleutant (eq. Lt. Col)and Maria Theresa Order 1790, Rittmeister 1785, Leutnant 1780, Joined Austrian Army 1788.

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Led IV Corps in 1809, fought at Eckmuhl, Aspern-Essling and Wagram
Led right wing at Second Caldiero 1805
Fought at Engen, Mosskirch, and Second Biberach 1800
Fought at Osterach, Stockach and First Zurich 1799
Brigade command in Germany under Archduke Charles 1796
Fought in battles of Ettlingen (Malsch) , Wurzburg, and Amberg 1796
Participated seige of Mainz 1795
Served with distinction in Turkish War 1788-1791
Wiener Neustadt officer academy 1774-1778

In Summary:
Considered rather strict and serious, seems to have been competant and professional, but certainly took a beating in 1809, first at Echmuhl and then at Wagram where he held the left wing. This might reflect the quality of the leaders he faced, Messena, Lannes, and Davout.


Kienmaier

Freiherr von Kienmaier (Kienmayer), Michael (1755 - 1828)

Ranks and Titles:
General of Cavalry (eq. Lieutenant General) 1809, Feldmarschalleutnant (eq. Major General) 1799, Generalmajor (eq. Brigadier General) 1794, Oberst (eq. Col) 1789, Maria Theresa Order 1789, Major 1788, Rittmeister 1778 , Leutnant 1775, Joined Austrian Army as cadet 1774.

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded II Reserve Corps in 1809
Led Advance Guard of Doctrov's column at Austerlitz 1805
As Austrian Chief-of-Staff contributed to Allied plan for Austerlitz 1805
Fought at Hohenlinden 1800
Fought at battles of Osterach and Stockach 1799
Served in Revolutionary Wars
Fought in battles of Rimnik and Martinesti 1789
Fought in battle of Focsani 1788
Served in Turkish War 1788-1791
Served in Hussars in Bavarian Succession War 1778-1779

In Summary:
Considered a steady soldier. As Austrian Chief of Staff had a hand in Allied planning for Austerlitz.


Klenau

Klenau von Janowitz, Johann, Graf (1758 - 1819)

Ranks and Titles:
General of Cavalry (eq. Lieutenant General) and Commander Cross of MTO 1813, Feldmarschalleutnant (eq. Major General) 1800, Generalmajor (eq. Brigadier General) 1798, Oberst (eq. Col) and Maria Theresa Order 1795, Oberstleutant (eq. Lt. Col) 1793, Major 1792, Rittmiester during War Bavarian Succession 1778-9, Joined Austrian Army as cadet 1774.

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded IV Corps in 1813, fighting at Liepzig
Led VI Corps at Wagram in 1809
Before Wagram in 1809 led II Corps advance guard
Led division in 1805 and captured at Ulm
Fought in Germany during the 1800 campaign
Fought at San Giovanni, and took Bologna and Florence 1799
Led Quasdanovich's advance guard in relief of Brescia 1796
Fought at Hanschuhheim 1795
Fought in Belgium and on Upper Rhine 1792-1795
Served in Turkish War 1787-1791
Served in War of Bavarian Succession 1778-1779

In Summary:
An energetic and experienced officer who managed to contribute to several Austrian victories.


Kollowrat

Kollowrat-Krakowsky, Johann Karl, Graf (1748 - 1816)

Ranks and Titles:
FeldMarschall 1813, Feldzeugmeister (eq. Lieutenant General) 1800, Feldmarschalleutnant (eq. Major General) 1795, Oberst (eq. Col) 1788, Hauptmann 1768, Joined Austrian Army as Unterleutnant 1766.

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded III Corps in 1809, fighting at Wagram
Commanded center column at Austerlitz 1805
Directed artillery of Rhine Army during Revolutionary Wars
Commanded infantry regiment at storming of Belgrade 1788
Served in Turkish War 1788-1791
Served in War of Bavarian Succession 1778-1779

In Summary:
Appears to have been a competant but not outstanding commander.


Kray

Freiherr Kray von Krajova und Topollya, Paul (1735 - 1804)

Ranks and Titles:
Feldmarschall 1800, Feldzeugmeister (eq. Lieutenant General) 1799, Feldmarschalleutnant (eq. Major General) 1796, Commanders Cross MTO 1794, Generalmajor (eq. Brigadier General) and enobled as Freiherr (Baron)1790, Maria Theresa Order 1789, Oberst (eq. Col) 1785, Oberstleutnant (eq. Lt. Col) 1783, Major 1778, Joined Austrian Army as cadet 1754.

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commander in Germany fighting at Engen, Stockach, Mosskirch, Ulm, and Hochstadt 1800
Commander in Italy winning battle of Magnano 1799
Led seige of Mantua and fought at Novi 1799
Commanded Corps in Germany under Archduke Charles 1796
Fought at battles of Wetzlar, Amberg and Wurzburg 1796
Fought at Fluerus, Courtrai, and Landrecy 1794
Fought at Menin 1793
Led Army Advance Guard in Belgium 1793
Outstandingly successful in Transylvania during Turkish War 1788-1791
Distinguished himself during the Seven Years War 1756-1763

In Summary:
Kray, "the dear son of victory", had a long and spectacular career up until a series of defeats as Army Commander in Germany during 1800.


A. Lichtenstein

Lichtenstein, Aloys Gonzaga, Prince (1780 - 1833)

Ranks and Titles:
Feldmarschalleutnant (eq. Major General) 1813, Commander Cross MTO 1809, Generalmajor (eq. Brigadier General)1809, Oberst (eq. Col) 1805, Oberstleutnant (eq. Lt. Col) 1801, Maria Theresa Order 1801, Major 1800, Hauptman (eq. Capt.) 1799, Joined Austrian Army as Unterleutnant 1798(?).

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded Reserve Corps 1815
Commanded division in II Corps 1813
Commanded brigade in III Corps 1809
Commanded regiment in Germany 1805
Fought at Osterach 1799

In Summary:
Appears to have been a competant middle level officer.


J. Lichtenstein

Lichtenstein, Johannes Joseph, Prince (1760 - 1836)

Ranks and Titles:
Feldmarschall 1809, General of Cavalry (eq. Lieutenant General) 1808, Prince Lichtenstein 1805, Grand Cross MTO 1801, Feldmarschalleutnant (eq. Major General) 1799, Commander Cross MTO 1796, Generalmajor (eq. Brigadier General)1794, Oberst (eq. Col) 1790, Maria Theresa Order 1790, Oberstleutnant (eq. Lt. Col) 1788, Major 1787, Rittmeister (eq. Capt.) 1783, Joined Austrian Army as Unterleutnant 1782.

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Fought at Ratisbon (Regenburg), Aspern-Essling and Wagram 1809
Commanded I Reserve Corps 1809
Led Austrian 5th column at Austerlitz 1805
Fought at Hohenlinden 1800
Served in Germany 1800
Fought at Trebbia and Novi 1799
Served in Italy 1799
Fought at Wurzburg 1796
Led brigade in Germany 1796-1797
Fought at Fluerus 1794
Served in the Netherlands 1792-1794
Fought in Turkish War 1788-1791

In Summary:
A very able cavalry leader. Consistently did more than his part.


M. Lichtenstein

Lichtenstein, Moritz, Prince (1775 - 1819)

Ranks and Titles:
Feldmarschalleutnant (eq. Major General) 1809, Generalmajor (eq. Brigadier General)1805, Maria Theresa Order 1801, Oberst (eq. Col) 1799,

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded division in French Campaign 1814
Led division at Dresden and Leipzig 1813
Led cavalry brigade in Buxhowden's Corps at Austerlitz 1805
Fought at Mosskirch 1800
Fought at Stockach and First Zurich 1799

In Summary:
Another member of a very military family.


Reuss

Reuss-Plauen, Heinrich, Prince (1751 - 1825)

Ranks and Titles:
Feldzeugmeister (eq. Lieutenant General) 1809, Maria Theresa Order 1809, Feldmarschalleutnant (eq. Major General) 1797, Generalmajor (eq. Brigadier General)1793, Oberst (eq. Col) 1788, Joined Austrian Army (I.R.35) 1766.

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Led Corps against Bavaria 1813
Commanded V Corps deployed near but not in battles of Aspern-Essling and Wagram later 1809
Initially in 1809 held division command in Archduke Louis' V Corps
Fought in battle of Caldiero 1805
Commanded division under Archduke Charles in Italy in 1805
Served in Southern Germany 1800
Fought at Stockach 1799
Commanded division under Archduke Charles in 1799
Fought at Lonato 1796
Commanded brigade in Italy 1796-1797
Fought in Belgium 1792-1794
Fought in Turkish War 1788-1791

In Summary:
Brave and capable soldier, effective in brigade and division command.


Weyrother

Freiherr von Weyrother, Franz (1754 - 1806)

Ranks and Titles:
Generalmajor (eq. Brigadier General)1805, Maria Theresa Order 1801, Oberst (eq. Col) 1799, Oberstleutnant 1797, Maria Theresa Order 1795, Hauptmann (Capt.) 1789, Unterleutnant 1783, Fahnrich (ensign) 1777, Joined Austrian infantry regiment as cadet 1775.

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
As Allied Chief-of-Staff and devised plan for Austerlitz 1805
Chief-of-Staff to Archduke John 1800
Chief-of-Staff to Suverov 1799
Chief-of-Staff to Kray
Author of Austrian plan for Rivoli 1797
Chief-of-Staff under Alvinczy, planned attack at Bassano 1796
Distinguished himself in defense of Mainz 1794
Served in Turkish War 1788-1791
Trained at Engineer School

In Summary:
Although obviously a superior operations officer, the outcomes of the Hohenlinden and Austerlitz campaigns suggest he may have had trouble adapting to the type of warfare made possible by the articulated armies of the French Corps system.


Wurmser

Dagobert Sigismond Wurmser, Count, (1724 - 1797)

Ranks and Titles:
Feldzeugmeister (eq. Lieutenant General)1796, Grand Cross MTO 1793, GdeK by 1787, Commander Cross Marie Theresa Order 1778, FML by 1778, Received command of 8th Hussars 1775, Received regiment 1773, Generalmajor (eq. Brigadier General) by 1763, Joined Austrian Army 1762, Joined French Army 1745.

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Isolated in fortress of Mantua Sept 1796 until surrendered in Feb 1797
Brought to battle by Bonaparte at Bassano during his second effort to relieve Mantua, Wurmser was defeated.
Successfully relieved seige of Mantua late July 1796, before being forced back after battle of Castiglione.
Took over command of Army of Northern Italy from Beaulieu, July 1796, made two efforts to relieve Mantua.
Resumed command of the Army of Upper Rhine in 1795 and succeeded in capturing Mannerheim.
Took command of the Army of the Upper Rhine 1793, despite some local success was forced back and relieved of command.
Was in command in district of Galicia in 1779 and during Turkish War (1788-1790).
Fought in War of Bavarian Succession (1778-1779).
Transfering from French service fought for Austrians in last part of Seven Years War (1762-1763).
Fought for French during first portion of Seven Years War (1756-1762).

In Summary:


Saxe-Coburg

Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, Friedrich Josias, Graf von (1737 - 1815)

Ranks and Titles:
Grand Cross MTO 1793, Feldmarschall 1788, Commander Cross Marie Theresa Order 1788, Feldmarschalleutnant (eq. Major General) 1773, Generalmajor (eq. brigadier) 1766, Oberst (eq. Col) 1759, OberstLeutnant (eq. Lt.Col.) 1758, Joined Austrian heavy cavalry regiment as Rittmeister (eq. Capt.) at age of 18

Selected Campaigns and Battles:

Led Austrians at battles of Landrecy, Tournai and Fleurus in 1794
Fought battles of Aldenhoven, Neerwinden and Wattignies in 1793
Given command in Austrian Netherlands 1793
Commanded at battle of Martinesje 1789
Led Austrian contingent at Battle of Pultna 1789
Commanded army in Western Ukraine during Austro-Turkish War 1788-1791
Fought in War of Bavarian Succession 1778-1779
Fought with distinction in the Seven Years War 1756-1763

In Summary:
An excellent general against both the Turks and the Revolutionary French, Saxe-Coburg, despite a string of victories was unable to hold the Austrian Netherlands (Belgium) against the much more numerous French. His health broken, he resigned in 1794.


Russian Military Leaders

Barclay de TollyKutuzovBagrationBennigsenRostopchinTollConstantineOstermann-TolstoyChichagovTormassovMiloradovichWittgensteinN. TuchkovA. WurttembergE. WurttembergGortschakowRajewskiLangeronSt. PriestYermolov  Pahlen III  Pahlen II 

Barclay de Tolly

Barclay de Tolly, Mikhail Andreas (1761 - 1818)

Ranks and Titles:
Prince 1815, Field Marshall, Count 1814, Minister of War 1810, Leiutenant-General 1807, Major-General 1799, Colonel 1798, Major 1790, Captain 1788, Cornet 1778, Enlisted Russian army 1776

Selected Campaigns and Battles:

Russian C-in-C in France for 1814 campaign
Senior Russian commander in battle of Leipzig 1813
Fought at battles of Bautzen, Dresden, and Kulmn in 1813
In command battle at Smolensk, led right wing at Borodino in 1812
Commanded First Army of the West 1812
Took part Russo-Swedish war in 1809
Seriously wounded at battle of Eylau 1807
Commanded right wing at Pultsk 1806
Fought against Poles 1792-1794
Fought against Swedes 1790
Fought in Russo-Turkish war of 1787-1791, seige of Ochakov

In Summary:
Brave, competant, experienced soldier who made a significant contribution to Napoleon's defeat in the extended campaign from 1812 to 1814. First in Russia, then Germany and finally in France.


Kutuzov

Kutuzov, Mikhail Larionovich Golennischcev-Kutuzov (1745 - 1813)

Ranks and Titles:
Prince of Smolensk 1812, Governor-General of Lithuania and Kiev 1806-1811, Governor of Finland, Ambassador to Prussia, Russian Ambassador in Constantinople,

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Fought last battle at Bunzlau in Silesia April 1813
Commanded Russian Forces after Smolensk in 1812, commanded at Borodino, Maloyaroslavets and the Beresina
Commanded Russian Forces on Danube against Turks 1811-1812
Commanded Russian Forces in 1805 campaign and fought at Austerlitz
Fought against Turks at seige of Ochakov in 1788, wounded in head
Fought in Crimea against Turks 1770-1774
Fought in Poland 1764-1769

In Summary:
Justifiably a Russian national hero.


Bagration

Bagration, Peter Ivanovich, Prince (1765 - 1812)

Ranks and Titles:
Full General (of Infantry) 1809, Lieutenant General and Order of St.George 1805, Major General 1799

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded left wing at Borodino in 1812 dying of wounds suffered
Fought at battles of Smolensk and Moyhilev in 1812
Army of Podolsk renamed Second Army of the West for 1812 campaign
Given command of Army of Podolsk 1811
Commanded Army of Moldavia on the Danube in Bulgaria during Russo-Turkish war 1809
Commanded division in Finland during Russo-Swedish war in 1808
At battles of Eylau, Heilsburg, and Friedland in the years 1806-1807
Commanded at Hollabrunn and was at Austerlitz in 1805
Commanded the rearguard of Kutuzov's Army in Austria during 1805 campaign
Under Suverov in Italian and Swiss campaigns of 1799
Participated in Polish Campaign of 1794
Took part in assault against Turks in Ochakov in 1788
Joined Russian army in 1782

In Summary:
A brave and effective soldier who impressed both Suvorov and Kutuzov.


Bennigsen

Bennigsen, Levin August, Baron, Count (1735 - 1826)

Ranks and Titles:
Enobled on the battlefield at Leipzig in 1813, Full General (of Cavalry) 1802, Lieutenant General 1797, Major General and Order of St.George (3rd class) in 1794, Brigadier General in 1788, Joined Russian army as Major in 1773

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded forces beseiging Hamburg in 1814
Commanded "Polish" or "Reserve" army of Russia at battles of Lutzen, Bautzen and Leipzig 1813
Kutuzov's chief of staff after Borodino, fought at battle of Tarutino later in 1812
Commanded Russian right wing at Borodino in 1812
Commanded Russian and Prussian forces which fought French at Pultusk, Eylau, Heilsburg and Friedland in 1806-1807
Participated in Persian campaign of 1796
Participated in Polish campaign of 1794
Promoted Brigadier for courage in assault on Ochakov in 1788
Joined Russian army as Major in 1773
Originally enlisted in Hanoverian Army

In Summary:
Far from flawless, he participated in the assassination of Tzar Paul and commanded the severely defeated Russian forces at Friedland. Bennigsen, nonetheless, managed to cause considerable trouble for Napoleon on repeated occassions, Eylau, Borodino and Leipzig among them. A major figure not often given his due.


Rostopchin

Rostopchin, Feodor Vasilyevich, Count (1763 - 1826)

Ranks and Titles:
Count 1799, Foreign Minister 1798-1800

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Governor-general of Moscow in 1812

In Summary:
That Napoleon found Moscow empty of people and that it then burnt down around him and his army was a critical setback. Rostopchin bears the responsibility.


Toll

Toll, Karl Fedorovich (1777 - 1842)

Ranks and Titles:
Lieutenant-General 1813, Order of St.George of 4th class 1812, Major-General 1812, Colonel 1811, Major 1800, Captain 1799,

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Served in French campaign of 1814
Served in German campaign of 1813, including Leipzig
Participated in battles of Borodino, Tarutino, Maloyaroslavets ,Viazma, and Krasny 1812
Under Kutuzov General-Quartermaster all Russian armies 1812
Participated in battles of Ostrovno, Vitebsk,and Smolensk
General-Quartermaster in 1st Western Army 1812
Fought in Russo-Turkish War 1806-1812
Fought in campaign against France 1805
Served under Suvorov in Italy and Switzerland 1799-1800

In Summary:
A capable staff officer. Strong willed and active in character, he also had the ear of Tzar Alexander. His influence on the campaigns of 1812, 1813, and 1814 considerably exceeded what would be expected of an officer with his formal rank and positions. He gets at least partial credit for the winning Trachenburg strategy employed by the Allies in 1813.


Constantine

Constantine Pavlovich, Grand Duke (1779 - 1831)

Ranks and Titles:
Grand Duke, The Tzar's brother.

Selected Campaigns and Battles:

Fought in French Campaign of 1814
Commanded Corps at Leipzig.
Present at Dresden 1813
Commanded Corps at Bautzen 1813
Fought in Germany in 1813
Fought in Russian Campaign of 1812
Fought French in Poland and Prussia in 1807
Led Russian Imperial Guard at Austerlitz 1805
Fought under Suverov in Italy and Switzerland in 1799

In Summary:
Brave but not particularly competant. Constantly in high command given who he was. Favored peace with the French.


Ostermann-Tolstoy

Ostermann-Tolstoy, Alexander Ivanovich (1770-1857)

Ranks and Titles:
Order of St.George Third Class 1807, General, became Count Ostermann 1797, Colonel by 1796, joined Russian army at age of 18.

Selected Campaigns and Battles:

Fought at battles of Bautzen and Kulmn 1813, wounded in both
Fought in German campaign of 1813
Led IV Corps at Borodino 1812
Fought in campaign of 1812
As a division commander distinguished himself at Eylau 1807
Served in Polish campaign of 1806-1807 against French, fighting at Charnova and Pultusk
Served under Suverov in the Russo-Turkish 1788

In Summary:
Very brave, competant division and corps commander.


Chichagov

Chichagov, Pavel Vasilievich (1767 - 1849)
(a.k.a., Tschitschagow, Tshitshagov, Tshitsagov, Tchichagov )

Ranks and Titles:
Governor-General of Moldavia 1811, Admiral and Minister of Naval Forces 1807, Vice Admiral 1802, Rear Admiral 1799, joined Russian Guard 1779.

Selected Campaigns and Battles:

Commanded Southern pincer of trap at Beresina 1812
Fought Austrians on Danube 1812
Took command Black Sea Fleet and Russian Army in Moldavia 1811
Commanded squadorn participating with English in operations against Holland 1799
Commanded ship in Russian-Swedish War
Took part Russian Navy's campaign in Mediterrean 1788

In Summary:
Napoleon deceived him at the Beresina avoiding capture with his entire army. Of course it's no shame to have been outmaneuvered by Napoleon.


Tormassov

Tormassov, Alexander Petrovich, Count (1752 - 1819)
(a.k.a., Tormassow, Tormasov )

Ranks and Titles:
Count, Order of St.George 2nd class 1812, General of Cavalry 1801, Lieutenant-General 1794, Major-General by 1791, Order of St.George 3rd class 1791, joined infantry regiment as lieutenant 1772.

Selected Campaigns and Battles:

Commander in Chief of Moscow 1814 on, made Count for work restoring the city
Corps command in Germany in early stages of 1813 campaign (before Lutzen)
Commanded Third Western Army on Napoleon's southern flank in 1812
Commander in Chief of Russian troops in Georgia 1808-1812
Participated in Polish campaign of 1794
Participated in assaults on Ochakov and Machin
Served in Russo-Turkish War 1787-1791

In Summary:
Competant senior commander, health problems from 1812 on.


Miloradovich

Miloradovich, Michail Andrevich (1771 - 1825)
(a.k.a. Miloradowich, Miloradovitch, Miloradowitz )

Ranks and Titles:
Count 1813, General of Infantry 1810, Governor of Kiev 1809, Lieutenant-General by 1805,

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Fought at Bautzen, Dresden, Kulmn and Leipzig 1813
Commanded Corps in Germany 1813
Fought battles of Vyazma and Krasnoe against retreating French in 1812
Commanded vanguard of Russian Army following French retreat from Moscow 1812
Commanded rear guard of Russian Army after Borodino and before French retreat from Moscow 1812
Commanded right wing at Borodino 1812
Commanded Russian forces in battles of Turbat and Obelishty 1807
Commanded Corps that liberated Bucharest 1806
Served in Russo-Turkish War 1806-1812
Fought at Austerlitz 1805
Fought at Novi 1799
Fought under Suvorov in Italian and Swiss campaigns 1799

In Summary:
A workhorse corps commander, and a Serbian by origin, Miloradovitch seems to have specialized in rear guard actions. He was quite skilled at them.


Wittgenstein

Wittgenstein, Prince Peter Ludwig (1768 - 1843)

Ranks and Titles:
Lieutenant General 1808, Major General 1799, Colonel 1798, Major 1793, Lieutenant 1792, Cornet 1790, Joined Russian Army (boy sargeant) 1781

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Fought battles at Nancy and Bar sur Aube in French Campaign 1814
Participated in battles of Dresden and Leipzig in Saxony in second part of 1813
Commanded Prussian and Russian Forces at battles of Lutzen and Bautzen first part of 1813
Commanded Russian Army on Napoleon's north flank in Russian Campaign of 1812
Fought at battles of Polotsk and Beresina in 1812, considered "defender of St.Petersburg"
Fought in Finland against Swedes in 1809
Fought in Polish Campaign in 1807, present at battle of Friedland
With Russia's Moldavian Army fighting the Turks in 1806
Led Russian vanguard at Austerlitz against French in 1805
In late 1790's fought in the Caucasus, present at seige of Derbent
Fought in Polish Campaign in mid 1790's, at seige of Ostrolenka in 1795

In Summary:
Wittgenstein's finest service was in 1812 when he first stood between the French and the capital at St.Petersburg and then later formed one jaw of the trap at the Beresina.


N. Tuchkov

Tuchkov, Nikolay Alekseyevich
(a.k.a. Tutchkov, Tutschkow)

Ranks and Titles:
Lieutenant-General,

Selected Campaigns and Battles:

Killed commanding III Infantry Corps at Borodino 1812
Commanded III Infantry Corps in Barclay de Tolly's 1st Army of the West 1812
Commanded 5th Division in Buxhowden's 2nd Army at Eylau in 1807

In Summary:
Not to be confused with the young regimental commander A.A. Tuchkov also killed at Borodino, or that young man's brother.


A. Wurttemberg

Wurttemberg, Alexander (1771 - 1833)

Ranks and Titles:
Duke, Order of St.George 2nd class 1813, Governor-General Belorussia 1811, General of Cavalry 1800, Lieutenant-General 1800, Colonel by 1794

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded Corps beseiging Danzig 1813
Fought in battles of Vitebsk, Smolensk, Borodino, Tarutino, and Maloyaroslavets 1812
Having transferred to Russian service fought under Suvorov in Italy and Switzerland 1799
Fought against the French in the Revolutionary Wars
Began his military service in the Austrian army 1789

In Summary:
Well connected, apparently a superior administrator and competent commander.


E. Wurttemberg

Wurttemberg, Eugen, Prince (1788 - 1857)
(a.k.a. Eugen, Prince Eugene de Wurtemburg, Frederick Charles Paul Louis Duke of Wurttemberg)

Ranks and Titles:
General, Lieutenant-General 1812,

Selected Campaigns and Battles:

Participated in 1814 French campaign particularily at Arcis-sur-Aube
Fought at Dresden, Kulmn, and Leipzig fall 1813
Fought at Lutzen and Bautzen spring 1813
Fought at Borodino and Krasnoe 1812
Began 1812 as division commander (4th div of II Corps 1st Western Army under Barclay)
Joined staff of Russian general Bennigsen
Accompanied his father (commander of Prussian Reserve) in 1806

In Summary:
A German who entered Russian service after the 1806 fiasco. One of the better Corps commanders in Russian service, he was constantly employed from 1812 through the campaigns of 1813, and 1814.


Gortschakow

Gortschakow, Andre Ivanovitch, Prince (1768 - 1855)
(a.k.a., Gortchakov, Gortschakoff, Gortchakow )

Ranks and Titles:
General of Infantry 1819, Lieutenant-General by 1807, Major-General 1799, Colonel by 1798 (age 19).

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded Corps in French campaign of 1814
Commanded I Infantry Corps fall 1813, fought at Leipzig
Served in German campaign of 1813
Seriously wounded at Borodino 1812
Commanded Shevardino redoubt in lead up to Borodino 1812
Served in Russian campaign of 1812
Participated at Friedland 1807
Divisional command in campaign in Poland and Prussia 1807
Fought at Tidone and Novi 1799
Served under Suvorov (his uncle) in Italian and Swiss campaign of 1799

In Summary:
His heroic stand at Borodino appears to have been the height of his military career. Although given Corps commands after recovering from his wounds incurred there, he seems to have been adequate rather than outstanding. He was not entrusted with independant missions.


Rajewski

Rajewski, Nickolay Nickolaevich (1771 - 1829)
(a.k.a., Raevsky, Rayevski, Raievski )

Ranks and Titles:
General, Lieutenant-General by 1813, Major-General by 1807, Colonel by 1792,

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Fought in French campaign 1813
Commanded Grenadier or III Corps at Leipzig 1813
Fought in German campaign 1813
Fought in battles of Maloyaroslavets and Krasnoe 1812
Had a prominent role and command VII Corps in battle of Borodino 1812
Took part in war against French in 1812 commanding VII Corps at Smolensk
Commanded a Corps against Turks in Russo-Turkish War of 1806-1812
Participated in Russo-Swedish War of 1808-1809
Commanded division at battle of Heilsberg 1807
Participated in campaign of 1806-1807
Fought against Polish
Fought against Persia
Fought in Russo-Turkish War

In Summary:
Another hero of 1812 and Borodino who gave good but not stellar service in the following years.


Langeron

Langeron, Alexander Louis Andrault de, Count (1763 - 1831)

Ranks and Titles:
Austrian Maria Theresa Order 1814, Order of St.George 2nd class 1813, Order of St.George 3rd class 1810, Lieutenant-General 1798, Major-General 1797, Brigadier-General 1796, Order of St.George 4th class 1790, Colonel 1788, Lieutenant-Colonel 1786, Sous-lieutenant at age of 15 (by 1778).

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Leads Corps at battles of Rhiems, Chalons, and Laon 1814
Blockades Mayence (Mainz) 1814
Commands Corps under Bernadotte in Army of North at Leipzig 1813
At head of one of Blucher's corps fights at Bober and Katzbach in later part of 1813
Led blockade of Thorn and participated at Bautzen in 1813
Corps commander in Admiral Chichagov's Army in 1812
Briefly commander of Army of Moldavia 1811
Fought against Turks 1807 to 1811
Fought at Austerlitz 1805
Military observer for Russia with Austrians in Netherlands and Northern France 1793-1794
Served in Russo-Turkish War 1790-1791
Served Russia in Russo-Swedish War 1790
Entered Russian service as Colonel 1789
Served France in the West Indies during the 1780s

In Summary:
A noble French emigre who entered Russian service in 1789. Distinguished himself in Swedish and Turkish wars and then against French revolutionary armies in Austrian Netherlands. Technically superior but not always pleasant officer, in disgrace after Austerlitz gave good service through out 1813 and 1814 campaigns.


St.Priest

St.Priest, Emmanual (1776 - 1814)

Ranks and Titles:
Lieutenant-General 1813, Order of St.George 4th class 1805, Colonel 1805, Lieutenant 1795, Cadet Russian service 1793,

Selected Campaigns and Battles:

Mortally wounded at battle of Rheims 1814
Fought at Leipzig 1813
Commanded VIII Infantry Corps fall 1813
Fought at Lutzen and Bautzen 1813
Wounded at Borodino 1812
Chief-of-Staff 2nd Western Army of Bagration 1812
Joined Moldavian Army and led regiment against Turks 1809
Fought in 1807 campaign against Franch
Fought at Austerlitz as regimental commander 1805

In Summary:
A French emigre in Russian service, St.Priest was a very aggressive division commander which was the end of him in the battle he brought on at Rhiems in 1814.


Yermolov

Yermolov, Alexey Petrovich (1772 - 1861)
(a.k.a., Ermolov, Jermolow, Yermolow )

Ranks and Titles:
General of Artillery 1816, Lieutenant-General 1812, Major-General 1808, Order of St.George 3rd class 1807, Colonel 1806, Order of St.George 4th class 1795, Captain 1791, Lieutenant 1791 Enlisted Russian Army 1787.

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded V 'Guard' Corps at La Rothiere 1814
Took part in French campaign of 1814
Command of V 'Guard' Corps at Leipzig 1813
Participated in battles of Dresden and Kulmn 1813
Commanded division at Bautzen 1813
Given charge of allied artillery 1813
Participated in German campaign of 1813
Fought at Vyazama, Krasnoe, and Beresina 1812
Fought at Borodino and Maloyaroslavets 1812
Kutozov's Chief of Staff for united 1st and 2nd Army's at Borodino and after 1812
Participated battles of Vitebsk and Smolensk 1812
Barclay's Chief of Staff for 1st Western Army 1811 and first part of 1812
Fought at Heilsberg, Eylau, and Friedland 1807
Fought in Polish campaign against French 1807
Fought at Austerlitz 1805
Participated in war against France 1805 to 1807
Generally commanded artillery companies from 1800 to 1808
Served under Suvorov in Italy and Switzerland 1799
Served under Suvorov in Polish campaign of 1794
Served against Persia 1796
Began service in the Artillery

In Summary:
An aggressive young Russian officer served on staff and divisional commands throught out 1812, 1813 and 1814. Good but maybe not as good as he thought he was.


Pahlen III

Phalen, Peter Petrovich, Graf (Count) von der (1777 - 1864)

Ranks and Titles:
Lieutenant-General 1812, Major-General 1800, Colonel 1796, Formal ranks of major and lieutenant colonel in 1792, and 1793, Formally joined Russian Army as lieutenant at age 13 in 1790,

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Fought at Brienne, Bar sur Aube, Arcis-sur-Aube , and La Fere Champenois in French campaign 1814
Had command of cavalry Corps in Germany, fighting at Bautzen, Kulmn and Leipzig 1813
Commanded 3rd Cavalry division in Barclay's 1st Army of the West at start 1812
Served under Bagration in Poland during 1807
Fought in Persian campaign, participating in seige of Derbent 1796

In Summary:
The aristocratic son of a general (he served as his father's adjudant for a period) Count Peter Petrovich von der Pahlen seems to have served effectively first as a cavalry division commander under Barclay in 1812, and then later as a cavalry Corps commander throughout the German and French campaigns of 1813 and 1814.


Pahlen II

Phalen, Paul (1775 - 1834)

Ranks and Titles:
Order of St.George 3rd class, Lieutenant-General 1814, Major-General 1810, Colonel 1798, Lieutenant Colonel 1796, Major 1793,

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Fought in French campaign at battles of Laon, Soisson, and Paris 1814
Participated in German campaign, fighting at Bautzen and Leipzig 1813
With Tormassov's Army, fighting at the Beresina 1812
Participated in Russo-Turkish War 1806-1812
Fought in Persian campaign 1796
Fought in Polish campaign 1794-1795

In Summary:
A much decorated cavalry officer who fought mostly against the Turks before campaigning against the French in the later part of 1812, then again in 1813 and 1814.


Prussian Military Leaders

BlucherYorckBulowHohenloheKliestHessen-HomburgTauentzienThielmann

Blucher

Blucher, Field Marshall Gebhard Leberecht (1742 - 1819)

Ranks and Titles:
Prince von Wahlstadt 1814, Field Marshall 1813, Full General in command of Prussian field forces in 1813, Governor General of Pomerania, Lieutenant General 1801, Major General 1794, Brigadier-General 1794, recommissioned Major 1787, joined Prussian Hussars 1760, left 1770, enlisted in Swedish cavalry 1756

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded Prussian Army in Belgium at battles of Ligny and Waterloo in 1815
Fought at battles of Champaubert, Montmirail, Chateau-Thierry, Vauchamps, Craonne, and Laon in 1814
Fought at battles of Lutzen, Bautzen, Katzbach and Leipzig in 1813
Commanded Prussian Army in campaign in Germany and France 1813-1814
Fought in battle of Gross-Beeren in 1806
Fought on the Rhine against French 1793-1794
Fought for first the Swedes then Prussians in Seven Years War (1756-1763)

In Summary:
"Old Forwards" was one of the great heros of the Napoleonic Wars. Always aggressive and loved by his men. One of Napoleon's greatest foes.


Yorck

Yorck, General Johann David Lugwig (1759 - 1830)

Ranks and Titles:
Count (Graf von Wartenburg) 1814, Full General of Infantry 1813, Lieutenant General 1812, Major General 1807, Colonel 1799, Major 1792, Captain 1791, Rejoins Prussian Army 1787, Joins Dutch Army 1781, Joins Prussian Army 1772

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Fought at battles of Montmirail, Chateau Thierry, Laon and Paris in 1814 French Campaign
Fought at battles of Lutzen, Bautzen, Katzbach, Wartenburg and Leipzig in 1813
Defects from French to allied cause with "Convention of Taruroggen"
Effective command of Prussian auxillery Corps assigned to Marshall MacDonald's X Corps in 1812
Captured at Lubeck in 1806
Served under Dutch in East Indies 1781-1787

In Summary:
Yorck's defection to the Russians with the "Convention of Taruroggen" forced the hand of his superiors. His command in 1813-14 was known as Blucher's "Fighting Corps". In the estimation of Clauswitz who knew him from these years he was "distinguished for bravery and military talent."


Bulow

von Bulow, General Friedrich Wilhelm (1755 - 1816)

Ranks and Titles:
Full General of Infantry 1814, Made Count (Graf von Dennewitz) 1813, Iron Crosses 1st and 2nd class 1813, Oak Leaves to Pour le Merit 1813, Lieutenant General 1813, Major General 1808, Colonel 1807, Pour le Merit 1794, Captain 1793, Lieutenant 1773, Cadet 1772, Enlisted 1768

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded Prussian IV Corps that attacked French flank around Plancenoit at battle of Waterloo 1815
Fought at Laon in 1814
Important role at Leipzig in 1813
Won critical battles of Gross-Beeren and Dennewitz defending Berlin in 1813
Commanded Prussians in actions at Zehdenick and Lucknau in 1813
In brigade command in 1808
Commanded regiment in 1807
Saw continuous action in the years 1793 to 1794 winning Pour le Merit at seige of Mainz

In Summary:
Like the 1813 campaign in Saxony in general the importance of Bulow's defense in front of Berlin in that year doesn't get the recognition in English language sources that it should. His appearance on the French flank at Waterloo was also critical and that is now beginning to be acknowledged.


Hohenlohe

Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen, Friedrich Ludwig, Prince (1746 - 1818)

Ranks and Titles:
General of Infantry by 1806, Governor of Berlin 1791, Major-General 1786, Colonel 1778, Lieutenant-Colonel 1775, joined Prussian Army as major 1768.

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Led the Prussian forces at Jena 1806
Commanded Corps in Prussian Army of the Rhine 1794
Participated in War of Bavarian Succession 1778
Entered Prussian Army 1767
Served against Prussians last part of Seven Years War (which ended 1763)

In Summary:
Personally brave and at least competant with regards to traditional military tactics, Hohenlohe was very popular in the Prussian Army. His severe defeat at Jena and surrender three weeks later were severe blows to Prussian morale. It should be noted he was not just facing Napoleon at Jena but was also badly outnumbered.


Kliest

Kliest, Friedrich Heinrich Ferdinand Emil, Graf (Count) von Nollendorf (1762 - 1823)

Ranks and Titles:
General of Infantry 1814, Lieutenant-General by 1813, Major 1799, joined Prussian infantry regiment at age 15 in 1778.

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Defeated Napoleon at Laon 1814
Participated in French campaign 1814
Corp commander at Bautzen, Dresden, Kulmn and Leipzig 1813
Fought in campaign of 1806, surrendering 20,000 men in Madgeburg after the Jena disaster
Fought in Revolutionary Wars

In Summary:
The "Graf von Nollendorf" was for his role in capturing Vandamme's Corps at Kulmn. As a junior and middle ranking officer von Kliest seems to have had mostly postings on the staff or as adjudant to very high ranking officers. He first appears in independant command in 1806 when he held then surrendered Magdeburg to the French along with a large portion of the remaining Prussian Army. Along with Blucher, Yorck, and von Bulow he was a key figure in the Prussian high command in the years 1813 and 1814. Kliest was responsible for the defence of Leipzig in the spring as well as fighting there during the fall at the Battle of Nations.


Hessen-Homburg

Hessen-Homburg, Ludwig Wilhelm, Prince (1770 - 1839)

Ranks and Titles:
Lieutenant-General, Major-General by 1813,

Selected Campaigns and Battles:

Commanded von Bulow's 3rd Brigade at Leipzig (battle of nations) 1813
Commanded von Bulow's 3rd Brigade at Gross-Beeren and Dennewitz 1813
Commanded the main body of von Bulow's Corps at Mockern April 1813

In Summary:
One of a large family of high ranking officers, four of them in Austrian service and a younger brother (Prince Leopold) who died at Lutzen(Grossgorschen). The Prussian Prince Ludwig was the junior of the two Hessen-Homburgs who fought on the Allied side in the Battle of Nations at Leipzig. The senior Hessen-Homburg (Prince Friedrich) was an Austrian general who also had a prominent part in the 1814 campaign leading an independant command against Augereau.


Tauentzien

Tauentzein, Bogislav Friedrich Emanuel, Graf von Wittenberg (1760 - 1824)

Ranks and Titles:
Grand Cross of the Iron Cross 1814, General of Infantry 1813, Lieutenant-General 1807, Major-General 1801, Colonel 1795, Major 1790, joined Prussian Army 1775.

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Fought at Leipzig (Battle of Nations) 1813
Fought at Gross-Beeren and Dennewitz 1813
Commanded IV Infantry Corps fall 1813
Besieged Stettin spring 1813
Fought at Jena, commanding Hohenlohe's center corps that took the brunt of the battle 1806

In Summary:
Shared fully in both the disaster of 1806 and 1813's revenge.


Thielmann

Thielmann, Johann Adolf, Freiherr von (1765 - 1824)

Ranks and Titles:
Lieutenant General 1810, Major General 1810, Free Corps Colonel 1809, Entered Saxon cavalry 1782,

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded Prussians at Wavre in 1815
Commanded Prussian III Corps at Ligny in 1815
Commanded Saxon Corps in Low Countries in 1814
Commanded Saxon division garrisoning Torgau which defected to Allies in May 1813
Fought at Borodino 1813
Led Saxon cavalry brigade in French Grande Armee during Russian Campaign 1812
As commander of Free Corps opposed Austrian advance into Saxony 1809
Fought at Friedland
Fought at seige of Danzig

In Summary:
Appears to have been a competant officer. Gave a good account of himself at Wavre.


British Military Leaders

WellingtonAbercrombyBeresfordBockLumleyCraufurdGrahamMooreH. PagetE. PagetPictonPakenhamHope HillStewartStuart

Wellington

Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington (1769 - 1852)

Ranks and Titles:
Duke of Wellington 1814, Field Marshall 1813, Generalissmo of the Spanish Armies 1812, Earl 1812, Viscount Douro 1811, Lieutenant General 1808, Major General 1802, Governor of Seringapatum 1799, Lieutenant-Colonel commanding 33rd Foot 1793, Major 33rd Foot 1793, Captain 1791, MP for Trim 1790-1795, Lieutenant 76th Regt 1787, Ensign 73rd Regt 1787

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded British in Netherlands 1815, commanding at Quartre-Bras and Waterloo
Commanded at battles of Sorauren, Bidossa, Vera, Vivelle and the Nive in 1813
Commanded at battle of Vitoria 1813
Commanded at battle of Salamanca and attempt on Burgos 1812
Commanded at taking of Ciudad Rodrigo and Badajoz in spring 1812
Commanded at battle of Bussaco 1810
Commanded at battle of Talavera 1809
Commanded at battle of Oporto 1809
Full command in Peninsula 1809-1813
First expedition to Portugal 1808, commanded at Vimeiro
Commanded division in Copenhagen expedition 1807, commanded at Kjoge(Roskilde)
Commanded brigade in southeast England 1805-1807
Commanded battles of Assaye, and Argaum against Marathas 1803
Commanded division in invasion of Mysore 1799
Commanded expedition 1798
In Madras 1798
In Bengal 1797
In India 1797-1805
Commanded 33rd Foot in Netherlands 1794-1795 fighting at Boxtel in 1794

In Summary:
Extremely skilled general, a clear master of intelligence, logistics and defensive tactics. Britain's best of the Napoleonic Era perhaps of any.


Abercromby

Abercromby, Sir Ralph (1734 - 1801)

Ranks and Titles:
Rejoined army as Major General in 1793, Member of Parliament, Lieutenant Colonel by 1773, Commissioned into cavalry in 1756.

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Led expedition to Eygpt in 1801, killed at Second Battle of Aboukir (Alexandria)
Sent to command in Mediterrean in 1800
Commanded landings in North Holland 1799, fought Battle of Bergen
Commanded in Ireland in 1797, resigning before rebellion of 1798
Commanded expedition to West Indies 1795-1796, capturing St. Lucia, St.Vincent and Trinidad
Served in Flanders 1794
Fought in Seven Years War as dragoon

In Summary:
Having fought in the Seven Year's War, and sat out the American one on principle Sir Ralph Abercromby made his reputation in the Revolutionary Wars. He is credited with helping restore the Army's morale after the American War and with having mentored a new generation of General Officers (Moore, Hill, Graham and Hope among them). He died victorious at the Second Battle of Aboukir (a.k.a. Alexandria).


Beresford

William Carr, Lord Beresford of Albuera, (1768 - 1854)

Ranks and Titles:
Baron 1814, Lieutenant-General 1812, Knighted 1810, Field Marshall in Portuguese Army 1809, Major General 1808, Governor of Madiera 1807, Brigadier General 1804, Colonel (brevet) 1800, Lieutenant Colonel (88th Foot; Connaught Rangers) 1794, Major 1794, Captain 1791, Commissioned in British Army (6th Foot) in 1785

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Participated in Campaign in South of France 1814
Present in the Battle of Pyrenees
Participated in battle of Vitoria 1813
Participated in battle of Salamanca 1812
Commanded at battle of Albuera 1811
With British Army for taking of Badajoz 1811
Tasked with reorganization of Portuguese Army 1809
Served with Moore at Corunna 1808
Occupied Madiera 1807
Escaped from Spanish captivity to England 1807
Captured with Buenos Aires Expedition 1806
As Brigadier participated in taking of Cape Colony 1806
Served under Biard in Eygptian expedition 1801
Commanded regiment in India 1799-1801
Served as Infantry Captain (69th Foot)at Toulon and Corsica 1793-1794

In Summary:
As a result of his reconstruction and training of the Poruguese army no one disputes Beresford's genius as an organizer and trainer of men. About his ability as a field general there is more debate, but Wellington thought he was the best suited of his generals for independant command.


Bock

von Bock, Eberhardt Otto Georg (17xx - 1814)

Ranks and Titles:
Major-General by 1812,

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Drowned in shipwreck 1814
His cavalry broke a French infantry square at Gracia Hernandez
Took over command of 1st Cavalry division after Salamanca
Commanded his brigade at Salamanca 1812
Arrived in Peninsula with heavy brigade of German dragoons (1st & 2nd KGL) 1812

In Summary:
Like the KGL itself put in a solid unflashy performance. His pursuit after of the French after Salamanca was unusually effective.


Lumley

Lumley, Hon. Sir William (1769 - 1850)

Ranks and Titles:
Lieutenant-General by 1814, Major-General 1805, Lieutenant-Colonel by 1795, Entered army 1787.

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Returned to England due to illness August 1811
Distinguished himself in pursuit after Albuera, esp. action of Usagre 1811
Commanded British cavalry at Albuera 1811
Commanded Infantry Brigade in Beresford's Army 1811
Took command brigade (formerly C. Crafurd's) in 2nd Division September 1810
Served in Peninsula 1810-1814
With expedition to Buenas Aries in 1806
Served in expedition that re-took Cape Colony in 1806
Served under Abercromby in Eygpt 1801
Participated suppression Irish Rebellion 1798

In Summary:
Sir William Lumley did good service on short notice at Albuera going from the command of an infantry brigade to being Breseford's cavalry commander. The action of Usagre shortly afterwards was one of British cavalry's high points in the Peninsular war. He had a long and distinguished career post-war.


Craufurd

Craufurd, Robert (1764 - 1812)

Ranks and Titles:
Major General 1811, Brigadier General cmd. Light Brigade 1808, Still Colonel in 1807, Deputy QMG in Ireland 1798, Colonel (brevet) 1797, Lieutenant Colonel 1797, Captain 1782, Commissioned into infantry in 1779

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Fought at Ciudad Rodrigo in 1812, mortally wounded
Fought at Fuentes de Onoro in 1811
Fought at Bussaco in 1810
Remained in command of Light Brigade when it became the "Light Division" in 1810
Took part in retreat to Corunna 1808-9
Given comand of Light Brigade in 1808
Commanded light infantry in Buenos Aires expedition of 1807
Served in North Holland in 1799
Staff officer during Irish Rebellion in 1798
Official attache to Austrian Army in Italian Campaign of 1797
Fought in 2nd War against Tipu Sahib of Mysore
Served in India from 1787

In Summary:
"Black Bob" was not the most even tempered man, but calculated the maneuvers of his troops with their new system of tactics with great skill. Perhaps at times rash rather than merely aggressive.


Graham

Graham, Sir Thomas (1748 - 1843)

Ranks and Titles:
Baron Lynedoch 1814, Lieutenant-General 1810, Major-General 1803, Brigadier-General 1799, Colonel 1795, Member of Parliament 1794-1807, Lieutenant-Colonel 1794.

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Served in Holland 1813 - 1814
Led seige of San Sebastian 1813
Wounded at Tolosa 1813
Led column at Vitoria 1813
Returned England prior to Salamanca 1812
Served at seige of Ciudad Rodrigo 1812
Corps command in Wellington's army 1811
Served at seige of Badajoz 1811
Took command of 1st Division August 1811
Led British at battle of Barossa March 1811
Command of garrison at Cadiz Spring 1810
Commanded brigade at Walcheren 1809
Served as Moore's ADC Corunna campaign 1808
In Spain 1808
Participant in abortive Swedish expedition 1808
Commanded land forces against Malta 1799-1800
Present at capture of Minorica 1798
Served as liason with Austrian army in Northern Italy 1796
Led his regiment at Quiberon Bay 1795
No military experience prior to serving as ADC to Lord Mulgrave at Toulon 1793
Raised a regiment from his own funds, the 90th Foot (Perthshire Volunteers)

In Summary:
One of the rare officers who performed well when given independant or semi-independant commands, unfortunately prone to eye problems.


Moore

Moore, Sir John (1761 - 1809)

Ranks and Titles:
Lieutenant General 1805, Knighted 1804, Major General 1798, Brevet Colonel with local Bde. General rank in 1795, Lieutenant Colonel in 1790, Whig Member of Parliament in 1784, Commissioned at age 15 in 1776

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Killed at battle Corunna in 1809
Led expedition into Spain 1808-1809, and commanded retreat to Corunna
Given command of army at Lisbon and in Peninsula in 1808 after Convention of Cintra
Commanded division in abortive expedition to aid Sweden in Russo-Swedish war in 1808
Trained troops in Light Infantry tactics at Shorncliffe Camp
Served in Sicily and Sweden in 1802
Commanded division in Eygpt 1801, took part in battle of Second Aboukir , wounded at Alexandria
Led brigade in North Holland in 1799
Took part in putting down Irish Rebellion in 1798
Commanded brigade in Abercromby's expedition to West Indies in 1796
Led his regiment in Corsica in 1794
Purchased 51st Regiment in 1790
Served extensively in America after commissioned at age 15 in 1776

In Summary:
A "Whig General", well thought of in the army and popular with his officers and men. A significant tactical innovator, and without doubt a great trainer of men.


H. Paget

Paget, Henry William, Lord, Earl of Uxbridge (1768 - 1854)

Ranks and Titles:
Marquis of Anglesey 1815, House of Lords as Earl of Uxbridge 1812, Member of Parliament 1790-1810, Colonel 1793,

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Led Wellington's cavalry at Waterloo 1815
Participated in Walcheren expedition
Screened retreat to Corunna 1809
Won cavalry engagements of Sahagun and Benavente 1808
Moore's cavalry commander in Spain 1808-1809
Served in North Holland 1799
Commanded 7th Light Dragoons
Transferred to the cavalry 1795
Served in the Low Countries 1794-1795
Raised 80th Staffordshire Volunteers regiment of foot 1793

In Summary:
Believed by many to have been the best British commander of cavalry in this period. His having eloped with Wellington's sister-in-law is believed to have prevented his later employment in the Peninsula after initial success under Moore. His cavalry broke the first major assault of the French at Waterloo but then failed to rally.


E. Paget

Paget, Edward, Honerable (1775 - 1849)

Ranks and Titles:
Lieutenant-General 1811, Major-General 1805, Brigadier-General 1803, Colonel (brevet) 1798, Lieutenant-Colonel 1793, Major 1793, Captain 1792, Sub-Lieutenant 1792, Cornet in Life Guards 1792.

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Captured during retreat from Burgos 1812
Command of 1st Division and 2IC in Peninsula 1812
Lost arm at Oporto 1809
Brigade command in Moore's Army in Peninsula, in charge of rear guard on retreat 1808-1809
Took part abortive Swedish expedition 1808
With Mediterrean garrisons 1806-1808
Wounded at battle of Alexandria 1801
Served in Eygpt 1801
Marine in Battle of St.Vincent 1797
Served in Flanders and Holland 1794-1795

In Summary:
The younger brother of Henry. Well thought of, particularily with respect to his conduct of rear guard operations during Moore's retreat to Corunna.


Picton

Picton, Sir Thomas (1758 - 1815)

Ranks and Titles:
Knighted and Leiutenant General 1813, Major General 1808, Governor of Tobago 1803 to 1806, Brigadier General 1801, Governor of Trinidad 1801-1803, Leiutenant-Colonel 1796, By 1795 was Major, Captain 1778, Joined British Army (12th Foot) as ensign, age 13, in 1771

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Wounded at Quatre-Bras and killed at Waterloo in 1815
Commanded 5th Division 1815
Commanded division at Vitoria in 1813
Commanded and severely wounded at seige of Badajoz in 1812
Fought at Fuentes de Onoro in 1811
Fought at Bussaco in 1810
Appointed to command 3rd Division in Peninsula in 1810
Took part in seige of Flushing during Walcheren Expedition in 1809
Took part in capture of St.Lucia and Trinidad in 1796-7
In 1794 sailed to West Indies and acquired position on General Abercromby's staff

In Summary:
Seven times received thanks of House of Commons but never raised to the peerage. Something of a rough character but aggressive and brave. He did well as a subordinate commander. Concealing a wound received at Quatre-Bras he died leading a charge at Waterloo.


Pakenham

Pakenham, Hon. Edward Michael (1778 - 1815)

Ranks and Titles:
Major-General 1812, Lieutenant-Colonel 1799, Commissioned 1794.

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Led expedition against New Orleans where he was killed 1815
Appointed to command British Forces fighting Americans 1814
Adjutant-General to Wellington's Army 1813
Fought at Sorauren 1813
Command of 6th Division 1813
Fought at Salamanca 1812
Command of 3rd Division 1812
Led brigade at Bussaco 1810
Brigade command in 1st Division 1810
In Peninsula 1809-1814
Wounded in assault on Martinique 1809
At Copenhagen 1807
Served in West Indies 1801-1803
Served in Ireland 1798

In Summary:
A dependable if not brilliant division commander. The brother of of Wellington's wife. Led the initial attack that shattered a French division at Salamanca. Had the misfortune of leading the British forces against Jackson at New Orleans where he was killed along with many of his soldiers.


Hope

Hope, Sir John, Earl of Hopetoun (1765 - 1823)

Ranks and Titles:
Earl of Hopetoun 1819, Lieutenant-General 1808, Deputy-Governor of Portsmouth 1805, Major-General 1802, Colonel (brevet) 1796, Lieutenant-Colonel 1793, Member of Parliament 1790, Captain 1789, Cornet in dragoons 1784.

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded seige of Bayonne where he was wounded and captured 1814
Fought at battles of Nivelle and the Nive 1813
Command of 1st Division 1813
Second in Command in Peninsula 1812
Command of 7th Division in Peninsula 1812
Commanded brigade at Salamanca 1812
Returned to Peninsula 1810-1814
Commanded division in Walcheren expedition 1809
Served as Moore's second in Command on abortive Swedish Expedition and in Peninsula 1808-1809
Wounded at battle of Alexandria 1801
Served in Eygpt 1801
Served in Holland 1799
Served in West Indies 1796
With Abercromby in Leeward Islands 1795

In Summary:
Wellington thought well of him although he also thought him personally reckless.


Hill

Hill, General Sir Rowland (1772 - 1842)

Ranks and Titles:
Baron 1814, Knighted 1812, Lieutenant General 1812, Major General 1805, Brigadier General 1803, Colonel 1800, Lieutenant Colonel 1794, Major 1794, Captain 1793, Lieutenant 1791, Ensign 1790

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Commanded 1st Allied Corps at Waterloo 1815
Fought in Southern France at battles of Bayonne and Toulouse in 1814
He blockaded Pamplona, and fought at the Nivelle and Nive in 1813
His command opened the battle of Vitoria in 1813
Fought at Almaraz 1812
Fought at Albuera, Arroyos dos Molinos, and Merida in 1811
Commanded 2nd division at Talavera in 1809
Participated in Moore's retreat and battle of Corunna in 1809
Fought at Rolica in 1808
Participated in landing at Aboukir Bay and wounded at Mandora before Alexandria in 1801
Served at Toulon in 1793

In Summary:
"Daddy Hill", as he was called by his troops, was one of the few generals Wellington trusted in independant command. Wellington felt he could depend on him saying "I always know where to find him".


Stewart

Stewart, Sir William (1774 - 1827)

Ranks and Titles:
Lieutenant-General 1813, Major-General 1808, Colonel (brevet) 1800, Lieutenant-Colonel 1795, Major 1794, Captain 1791, Lieutenant 1787, Enlisted as ensign in 42nd Highlanders 1786.

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Badly wounded commanding 2nd division at Maya 1813
Wounded commanding 2nd division at Albuera 1811
Took command 2nd division after Hill becomes ill Fall 1810
Fought at Bussaco 1810
Commanded brigade in Hill's 2nd division 1810
Commanded initial British garrison of Cadiz Spring 1810
Commanded 95th Rifles at Ferrol and Copenhagen

In Summary:
Hard fighting, perhaps over aggressive, officer. Certainly at Albuera he made an unordered attack that resulted in one of his brigades being severely mauled.


Stuart

Stuart, Sir John, Count of Maida (1759 - 1815)

Ranks and Titles:
Lieutenant-General by 1815, Knighted, Count 1806,

Selected Campaigns and Battles:
Led defence of Sicily 1810
Fought in southern Italy 1809
Led British forces at the battle of Maida 1806
Commanded expedition against Calabria 1806
Commanded division at battle of Alexandria (2nd Aboukir) 1801
Participated in taking of Minorica 1799
Command of British Forces in Mediterrean 1798
Military advisor to Portuguese forces
Served under Duke of York in Flanders 1793-1795
Taken prisoner at Yorktown 1781
An American who fought on the British side during the Revolutionary War

In Summary:
A very competant officer who held independant commands in secondary theatres. Had a chronic belief that he wasn't being adequately supported by his superiors.


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